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Fine Wines & Spirits


19171 Magnolia Street, #6
Huntington Beach, CA 92648

"Click Here for
Map Directions to"



Spring Into Salads With These Wine Pairings

Wine and Food Pairing

The 10 Choicest Cocktails in America
Cocktail Party Ideas
Four Classic Tiki Cocktail Recipes
Non-Alcoholic Fruit Cocktails
An Introduction to Bartending
Learning to Serve Alcoholic Drink Recipes With Flair
The Health Benefits of Beer
Cocktail Recipies

Information Article 1:
About A Liquor Store
Information Article 2:
About Beer
Information Article 3:
About Wine
Information Article 4:
List of US Beer Companies
Information Article 5:
About Alcoholic Beverages
Information Article 6:
List of Cocktails
Information Article 7:
About Huntington Beach
  Information Article 8:
About Fountain Valley
  Information Article 9:
About Westminster
  Information Article 10:
About Newport Beach
  Information Article 11:
About Costa Mesa
  Information Article 12:
About Seal Beach
Information Article 13:
About Orange County

How do you become famous?
Helping people!
Changing their lives and
making a difference
in their lives.
Loving them... Eric Brenn

Where Do You Find Snacks, Drinks, and More To Go...

in Huntington Beach, Orange County's Best pledges to provide you consistently delicious Food, Soda, Beer, Wine, Liquor,
Non-Alcoholic Drinks, Lotto, Chips, Donuts, Milk, Sandwitches, Cookies, Brownies, Cerial, Groceries, Eggs, Fresh Fruit, Dried Fruit, Gatorade, Chocolates, Nuts, Candy, Ice Creams, Cup Cakes, Bottled Water, Vitamin Water, Beef Jerky, Health Bars, Hot Dogs, Bread, Vitamins, Car Accessories, Juices, Pepsi, Coke, A&W, 7-Up, Root Beer, Dr. Pepper, Sprite, Sierra Mist, Monster Drinks, Bandaids, Asparin, First Aid Kits, Flashlights, Matches, Cigarettes, Car Accessories, and many more items with fair prices in a warm and friendly atmosphere.

Stock up for your next party or event at
Gold Star Liquor, we have a
great varieties of products at
great prices.

Please Note: The Law States you must be over 21 years of age to purchase acloholic beverages.
You may purchase other items and non-alcoholic drinks when under aged.

We have an exclsive area in the store dedicated to Great Wines.
Some of our wines have incredible prices while others are unique to our store and are specialized in fine, and some unique and rare wines. We have Chardonnay Wines, Cabernet Wines, Zinfandel Wines, Merlot Wines, French Wines, California Wines, White Wines, Red Wines, Organic Wines, Shiraz Wines, Sweet Wines, Dessert Wines, Dry Wines, Italian Wines, Pinot Wines, Sauvignon Wines, Discount Wines, Champaigns and more.

The types of grapes used to make a wine are the most important factor in the taste of the wine. However, the flavors are also affected other factors such as soil, exposure to sunlight, climate, how the grapes are handled and fermented, types of yeast used, whether the wine is aged in wood, etc. Because of this, the same type of wine can be produced in several different regions, but various factors result in wines which taste different! Half the fun of experiencing wine is the incredible array of flavors available!

We have a great beer selections at great prices!
We have frequent specials on various brands of beer. Light Beer, Dark Beer, Name Brand Beer, Specialy Beer, Local Brewed Beer, Ales, Altbeer, Special, Lagers, Vienna, Marzen, Munich, Bock, Dopple Bock, Lambics, Geuze, Faro, Kriek and more...

Beer is a beverage created by the alcoholic fermentation of hops, yeast, malt and water. Only barley malt be used for bottom-fermented beer, while wheat, rye or spelt can be used for top-fermented beer. Beer was man's first alcoholic drink. The brewing of barley malt beer can be traced back to the 4th century BC.

We have a great liquor selections at great prices!

Whether one is pursuing a career in bartending or is just entertaining friends, understanding the basic types of liquor is crucial part of mixing great drinks. Liquors are distilled from various grains, vegetables, and fruits. The differences in flavors result from the grain used, the aging process, and/or the addition of flavoring agents.

Vodka can be traced as far back as the 8th century in Poland and the 15th century in Russia. Vodka is a colorless liquor generally made from grains such as corn, wheat, or rye. Vodka goes through a filtration and distillation process to get rid of impurities and make sure the vodka has no aroma, character, flavor, or color. Vodka is between 80 and 100 proof.

Gin originated in the Netherlands in the 17th century. Gin is a clear liquor with a smooth texture. The taste of gin is very dry and is usually mixed with other beverages. The most common type of gin is “London Dry Gin” which refers to the distillation process, not a brand. Gin is made from the distillation of white grain spirit and juniper berries which provides its distinct flavor. Gin is produced in a column still and is redistilled after the botanicals are added to the base spirit. Gin is between 80 and 90 proof.

The first distillation of rum took place on sugarcane plantations in the Caribbean in the 17th century. Rum is made from sugarcane by-products like molasses and sugarcane juice through a process of fermentation and distillation. After distillation, the clear liquid is aged in oak casks or barrels. Rum can be clear, gold, or a dark brown color. The color depends upon how long the rum is aged. Rum is usually 80 proof but some rum can actually be over proof at 151 or 160 proof.

Whiskey refers to a broad category of alcohol that are distilled from grains and aged in oak casks or barrels. Whiskeys are produced in the United States, Ireland, Canada, and Scotland. There are many types of whiskeys and each is distilled using different ingredients such as corn mash, barley, rye, malt, or blends. Each type has a distinctive flavor and color. Whiskeys are usually 80 proof.

Scotch is a kind of whiskey that comes from Scotland. Scotch has been around since the 4th or 5th century. Scotch is made from water and malted barley. Scotch is aged in oak casks for exactly three years and one day. No whiskey other than Scotch can be made in Scotland. The distillation process depends on whether the Scotch is a single male, blended malt, or grain. Scotch is made between 60 and 80 proof.

Tequila was first produced in the 16th century near Guadalajara Mexico. The Aztecs were the first to distill Tequila. Tequila is made from the Blue Agave Tequilana plant native to Mexico. Tequila must be at least 51% agave. Many types of Tequila are 100% agave. Tequila runs between 70 and 110 proof.

We also sell Lotto tickets and various seasonal items that have a high demand and valued by our customes. Please visit and find your snacks, drinks, groceries and great stuff at our stores.


To the common eye, this liquor may not seem like much...but it has become my drink stop after I excercise at the park. Its always nice to see a friendly face and get an ice cold something to drink.

My first experience at this facility was that I needed a quick wine as a gift for a friend that I forgot to get. I was suprised their selections and have gone back a few times to buy something a better for myself.

I hurt my finger at the Home Depot, and I quickly went to the friendly little store and picked up a first aid kit with some bandaids. Right there when you needed it. Thanks


I Get my Lotto Tickets there and they are always so nice. I really appreciate it.



  Beer Company - USA Location Telephone
Abita Brewing Company Abita Springs LA *
Alaskan Brewing Company Juneau AK 907-780-5866
Alcatraz Brewing Company  Emeryville CA 510-594-4262
Ale Smith Brewing Company San Diego CA 858-549-9888
Allagash Brewing Company Portland ME 800-330-5385
Alltechs Lexington Brewing Company Lexington KY *
Amherst Brewing Company Amherst MA 413-253-4400
Anacortes Brewery Anacortes WA 360-588-1720
Anchor Brewing Company San Francisco CA 415-863-8350
Anderson Valley Brewing Company Boonville CA 800-207-BEER
Angel City Brewing Culver City CA 310-837-8244
Angelic Brewing Company Madison WI 888-815-5992
Anheuser-Busch Companies St Louis MO 800-DIAL-BUD
Appalachian Brewing Company Harrisburgh PA 717-221-1080
Arbor Brewing Company Ann Arbor MI 734-213-1393
Arcadia Brewing Company Battle Creek MI 616-963-9690
Atlantic Brewing Company Bar Harbor ME 800-837-4683
Atlantic Coast Brewing Boston MA 617-439-9011
August Schell Brewing Company New Ulm MN 800-770-5020
Avery Brewing Company Boulder CO 303-415-1000
BackCountry Brewery Frisco CO 970-668-BEER
Back Road Brewery LaPorte IN 219-362-7623
Bad Frog Brewery Company Rose City MI 888-BAD-FROG
Ballast Point Brewing Company San Diego CA 619-298-2337
Baltimore Brewing Company Baltimore MD 410-837-5000
Barley Creek Brewing Company Tannersville PA 570-629-9399
Barleys Brewing Company Columbus OH 614-228-ALES
Barrel House Brewing Company Cincinnati OH 513-421-BEER
Basil Ts Brew Pub Red Bank NJ 732-842-5990
Battleground Ale * 866-927-4376
Bayern Brewing Missoula MT 406-721-1482
Beach Chalet Brewery San Francisco CA 415-386-8439
Bear Creek Brewing Company Redmond WA 425-498-BEER
Bear Republic Brewing Company Healdsburg CA 707-433-2337
Belmont Brewing Company Long Beach CA 562-433-3891
Bend Brewing Company Bend OR 541-383-1599
Bert Grants Yakima WA 509-575-2922
Big Buck Brewery  Gaylord MI 989-732-5781
Big Sky Brewing Company Missoula MT 800-559-2774
Big Time Brewery Seattle WA 206-545-4509
Bison Brewing Company Berkeley CA *
Bitter End Brewery Austin TX 512-478-BEER
Black Diamond Brewing Company Walnut Creek CA *
Blimp City Brewery Akron OH 330-628-6251
Blind Tiger Brewery Topeka KS 785-267-BREW
Bloomington Brewing Company Bloomington IN 812-339-2256
Blue Collar Brewing Company Vineland NJ 856-690-1950
Bluegrass Brewing Company Louisville KY 502-899-7070
Blue Point Brewing Company Patchogue NY 631-475-6944
Bohemian Brewery Salt Lake City UT 801-566-5474
Bonnema Brewing Company Atascadero CA 800-276-BREW
Borealis Brewery Anchorage AK 907-278-5480
Boston Beer Company Boston MA 617-368-5000
Boulder Creek Brewing Company California *
Boulevard Brewing Company Kansas City MO 816-474-7095
Boundary Bay Brewing Company Bellingham WA 360-647-5593
Breckenridge Brewery Denver CO 617-425-0122
BrickHouse Brewery Patchogue NY 631-447-BEER
Bridgeport Brewing Company Portland OR 503-241-7179
Bristol Brewing Company Colorado Springs CO  719-633-2555
Brooklyn Brewery Brooklyn NY 718-486-7422
Buckhead Brewery Alpharetta GA 770-475-3662
Budweiser St Louis MO *
Bullfrog Brewery Williamsport PA 570-326-4700
Butte Creek Brewing Company Chico CA 530-894-7906
Butterfield Brewing Company Fresno CA 559-650-BREW
Buzzards Bay Brewing Westport MA 877-287-2421
Cambridge Brewing Company Cambridge MA 617-494-1994
Capital Brewery Middleton WI 608-836-7100
Capitol City Brewing Company Washington DC 202-628-2222
Carolina Beer & Beverage Mooresville NC 704-799-2337
Carolina Brewing Company Holly Springs NC 919-557-BEER
Casdcade Lakes Brewing Company Redmond OR 541-923-3110
Casco Bay Brewing Company Portland ME 207-797-2020
Cedar Brewing Company Cedar Rapids IA  319-378-9090
Celtic Bayou Redmond WA 425-869-5933
Central Coast Brewing San Luis Obispo CA 805-783-BREW
Central Waters Brewing Company Junction City WI 715-457-3322
Chelsea Brewing Company New York NY 212-336-6440
Chesapeake Bay Brewing Company Raleigh NC 919-834-9200
Chili Beer Company Cave Creek AZ 480-488-4742
Church Brew Works, The Pittsburgh PA 412-688-8200
Cisco Brewers Nantucket MA 800-324-5550
City Brewery La Crosse WI 608-785-4200
City Steam Brewery Hartford CT 860-525-1600
Clipper City Brewing Company Maryland *
Coastal Extreme Brewing Company Newport RI 401-849-5232
Coast Range Brewing Company Gilroy CA 408-842-1000
Cocks Fine Brews  * *
Coeur d'Alene Brewing Company Coeur d'Alene ID 208-664-BREW
Colorado Brewery, The Danbury CT 203-791-1450
Concord Junction Brewing Company Concord MA 978-371-9929
Coopers Cave Ale Company Glens Falls NY 518-792-0007
Cooperstown Brewing Milford NY 607-286-9330
Coors Brewing Company Golden CO 303-277-3085
Copper Canyon Brewery Southfield MI 248-223-1700
Cottrell Brewing Company Pawcatuck CT 860-599-8213
Court Avenue Brewing Company Des Moines IA 515-282-BREW
Crescent City Brewhouse New Orleans LA 888-819-9330
Crested Butte Brewery  Englewood CO 720-884-1023
Crooked River Brewing Company Cleveland OH 216-771-BEER
Dam Brewery Dillon CO 970-262-7777
Deep Creek Brewing Company Oakland MD 301-387-2182
Deja Brew Shrewsbury MA 508-842-8991
Deschutes Brewery Bend OR 541-317-3437
Diamond Bear Brewing Company Little Rock AR 501-708-BREW
Dicks Brewing Company Centralia WA 800-586-7760
Distillery, The Rochester NY 716-271-4105
DL Geary Brewing Portland ME 207-878-2337
Dogfish Head Craft Brewery Lewes DE 888-8-DOGFISH
Dogwood Brewing Company Atlanta GA 404-367-0500
Dragonmead Microbrewery Warren MI 586-776-9428
Dunedin Brewery Dunedin FL *
Eel River Brewing Company Fortuna CA  707-725-2739
EJ Phair Brewing Company Concord CA 925-680-4253
El Dorado Brewing Company Mount Aukum CA 530-620-4253
Elevator Brewery Columbus OH 614-228-0500
Elk Grove Brewery Elk Grove CA 916-685-ALES
Elliott Bay Brewing Company Seattle WA 206-932-8695
Elysian Brewing Company Seattle WA 206-860-1920
Eureka Brewing Company Smithton PA *
Faultline Brewing Company Sunnyvale CA 408-736-2739
Fieldstone Brewing Company Rochester MI 248-656-0618
Fish Brewing Company Olympia WA 360-943-6480
Fitgers Brewhouse Duluth MN 218-726-1392
Five Seasons Brewing Company Atlanta GA 404-255-5911
Flagstaff Brewing Company Flagstaff AZ *
Florida Brewery Auburndale FL 941-965-1825
Flying Bison Brewing Company Buffalo NY 716-873-1557
Flying Dog Beer Denver CO 303-292-2555
Flying Fish Brewing Company Cherry Hill NJ 856-489-0061
Founders Brewing Company Grand Rapids MI 616-776-1195
Foundry Ale Works Pittsburgh PA *
Four Peaks Brewing Company Tempe AZ 480-303-9967
Franconia Notch Brewing Company Littleton NH 603-444-6258
Frederick Brewing Company Frederick MD 888-258-7434
Fredericksburg Brewing Company Fredericksburg TX 830-997-1646
Free State Brewing Company Lawrence KS 785-843-4555
Full Sail Brewing Company Hood River OR 888-244-BEER
Gambrinus Company, The San Antonio TX *
Gaslight Brewery South Orange NJ 973-762-7077
Gentle Bens Brewing Company Tucson AZ 520-624-4177
Gilded Otter Brewing Company New Paltz NY 914-256-1700
Glacier Brewhouse Anchorage AK 907-274-BREW
Gluek Brewing Company Cold Spring MN *
Golden Pacific Brewing Company Berkeley CA *
Golden Valley Brewery McMinnville OR 503-472-BREW
Goose Island Beer Company Chicago IL 312-226-1119
Gordon Biersch Brewing Company Palo Alto CA *
Grand Teton Brewing Company Victor ID 208-787-9000
Grays Brewing Company Janesville WI 608-752-3552
Great Adirondack Brewing Company Lake Placid NY 518-523-1629
Great Bear Brewing Company Wasilla AK 907-373-4PUB
Great Beer Company, The Chatsworth CA 818-718-BREW
Great Divide Brewing Company Denver CO 303-296-9460
Great Grains Brewery Dallas TX 214-654-9010
Great Lakes Brewing Company Cleveland OH 216-771-4404
Great Northern Brewing Company Whitefish MT *
Great Waters Brewing Company Saint Paul MN 651-224-BREW
Green Bay Brewing Company Green Bay WI 888-604-BEER
Gritty McDuffs Brewing Company Portland ME 207-772-BREW
Hair of the Dog Brewing Company Portland OR 503-232-6585
Hales Ales Brewery Seattle WA 206-706-1544
Hammer & Nail Brewers Watertown CT 860-274-5911
Hangtown Brewery Placerville CA 530-621-3999
Harbor City Brewing Company Port Washington WI 262-284-3118
Harpoon Brewery Boston MA 888-HARPOON
Harvest Moon Brewery New Brunswick NJ 732-249-MOON
HC Berger Brewing Company Fort Collins CO 970-493-9044
Heartland Brewery New York NY 212-645-3400
Heavyweight Brewing Company Ocean Township NJ 732-493-5009
High Falls Brewing Company Rochester NY *
Highland Brewing Company Asheville NC 828-255-8240
High Point Wheat Beer Company Butler NJ 973-838-7400
Hook & Ladder Brewing Company Oakland CA 510-406-4522
Hoppy Brewing Company Sacramento CA *
HopTown Brewing Company Pleasanton CA 925-426-5665
Hop Yard Pleasanton CA *
Horse Brass Pub Portland OR 503-232-2202
Hub City Brewery Lubbock TX 806-747-1535
Hudepohl Schoenling Brewing Company Cincinnati OH  513-984-6910
Humboldt Brewing Company Arcata CA 707-826-1734
Hyannisport Brewing Company Hyannis MA 508-775-8289
Hyde Park Brewing Company Hyde Park NY 845-229-8277
Ice Harbor Brewing Company Pasco WA 888-701-2350
Indian Wells Brewing Company Inyokern CA 760-377-5989
Interbrew Belgium 32 1624 7294
Interbrew Beer Brands Belgium 32 1624 7294
Iron Hill Brewery Newark DE 302-266-9000
Ithaca Beer Company Ithaca NY 607-273-0766
Jack Russell Brewing Company Camino CA 530-644-4722
Jacob Leinenkugel Brewing Company Chippewa Falls WI  715-723-5557
James Page Brewing Company Minneapolis MN 612-378-0771
JJ Bitting Brewing Company Woodbridge NJ 732-634-2929
John Harvards Brewing Company Cambridge MA  617-868-3585
Jones Brewing Company Smithton PA 724-872-6626
Joseph Huber Brewing Company Monroe WI 608-325-3191
JT Whitneys Pub & Brewery  Madison WI 608-274-1776
Jupiter Beer Berkeley CA 510-THE-TAPS
Kalamazoo Brewing Company Kalamazoo MI 616-382-2338
Karl Strauss Breweries San Diego CA 858-273-2739
Ketchikan Brewing Company Ketchikan AK *
Kettlehouse Brewing Company Missoula MT 406-728-1660
Key West Brewery Key West FL 305-295-7800
Kobors Brewing Company Schuylerville NY 518-695-4210
Kona Brewing Company Kona HI 808-334-BREW
Koppitz Brewery Detroit MI 313-545-0000
LaConner Brewing Company LaConner WA 360-466-1415
Lagniappe Brewing Company New Orleans LA 504-276-BEER
Lagunitas Brewing Company Petaluma CA 707-769-4495
Lakefront Brewery Milwaukee WI 414-226-2337
Lake Louie Brewery Wisconsin *
Lake Superior Brewing Company Duluth MN 218-723-4000
Lang Creek Brewery Marion MT 406-858-2200
Left Hand & Tabernash Brewing Company Longmont CO 303-772-0258
Legend Brewing Company Richmond VA 804-232-8871
Leinenkugel Brewing Company Chippewa Falls WI  715-723-5557
Lexington Brewing Company Lexington KY *
Lion Brewery Wilkes-Barre PA 800-233-8327
Little Apple Brewing Company Manhattan KS 785-539-5500
Live Oak Brewing Company Austin TX 512-416-7798
Local Color Brewing Company Novi MI 248-349-2600
Long Trail Brewing Company Bridgewater Corners VT 802-672-5011
Lost Coast Brewery Eureka CA 707-445-4480
Lucky Labrador Brewing Company Portland OR 503-236-3555
MacTarnahans Brewing Company Portland OR 503-226-7623
Mad River Brewing Company Blue Lake CA  707-668-4151
Magic Hat Brewing Company South Burlington VT 802-658-BREW
Magnolia Pub & Brewery San Francisco CA  415-864-PINT
Main Street Beer Company Richmond VA 804-358-9620
Manayunk Brewery Philadelphia PA 215-482-8220
Marin Brewing Company Larkspur CA *
Mehana Brewing Company Hilo HI 808-934-8211
Mendocino Brewing Company Mendocino CA *
Mercury Brewing Company Ipswich MA 978-356-3329
Michigan Brewing Company Webberville MI 517-521-3600
Mickeys Brewing Company Milwaukee WI *
Middle Ages Brewing Company Syracuse NY 315-476-4250
Midnight Sun Brewing Company Anchorage AK 907-344-1179
Miller Brewing Company Milwaukee WI 414-931-2155
Millstream Brewing Company Amana IA  319-622-3672
Milwaukee Beer Company Mequon WI 414-559-5391
Minnesota Brewing Company St Paul MN 651-228-9173
Minocqua Brewing Company Minocqua WI 715-358-3040
Mogollon Brewing Company Flagstaff AZ 520-773-8950
Moonlight Brewing Company Windsor CA 707-528-2537
Moon River Brewing Company Savannah GA 912-447-0943
Motor City Brewing Works Detroit MI 313-832-2700
Mountain Town Station Mount Pleasant MI 517-775-2337
Mount Hood Brewing Company Government Camp OR 503-622-0768
Mount St Helena Brewing Company Middletown CA 707-987-3361
Moylans Brewery Novato CA 415-898-4677
New Amsterdam Brewing Company New York NY 212-473-1900
New Belgium Brewing Company Fort Collins CO 888-NBB-4044
New Century Brewing Company Hingham MA 781-749-7800
New Glarus Brewing Company New Glarus WI 608-527-5850
New Holland Brewing Company Holland MI 616-355-6422
Newport Beach Brewing Company Newport Beach CA  949-675-8449
Nimbus Brewing Company Tucson AZ 520-745-9175
Northampton Brewery Northampton MA  413-584-9903
North Coast Brewing Company Fort Bragg CA  707-964-2739
Nor'Wester Beer Lake Oswego OR *
Nutfield Brewing Company Derry NH 888-466-8889
Oaken Barrel Brewing Company Greenwood IN 317-887-2287
Oconomowoc Brewing Company Oconomowoc WI 262-560-0388
Odell Brewing Company Fort Collins CO *
Old Dominion Brewing Company Ashburn VA 703-724-9100
Olde Burnside Brewing Company East Hartford CT 860-528-2200
Olde Hickory Brewery, The Hickory NC 828-323-8753
Ommegang Brewery Cooperstown NY 800-656-1212
Otter Creek Brewing Middlebury VT 800-473-0727
Ozark Brewing Company Fayetteville AR 479-521-BREW
Pabst Brewing Company San Antonio TX 800-935-BEER
Pacific Coast Brewing Company Oakland CA 510-836-2739
Pacific Crest Brewing Company Tukwila WA 206-764-1731
Pacific Rim Brewing Company Seattle WA 206-764-3844
Paper City Brewery Holyoke MA 413-535-1588
Park Slope Brewing Company Brooklyn NY 718-858-8980
Pearl Street Brewery La Crosse WI *
Pelican Pub & Brewery Pacific City OR 503-965-7007
Pennsylvania Brewing Company Pittsburgh PA 412-237-9402
Petes Brewing Company San Antonio TX *
Phillip Kling Brewing Company Chicago IL 312-561-1888
Pike Brewery Company Seattle WA 206-622-6044
Pittsburgh Brewing Company Pittsburgh PA 412-682-7400
Portland Brewing Company Portland OR 503-226-7623
Portsmouth Brewery Portsmouth NH 603-431-1115
Port Townsend Brewing Company Port Townsend WA 360-385-9967
Prescott Brewing Company Prescott AZ 928-771-2795
Pyramid Breweries Seattle WA 206-682-8322
Ramapo Valley Brewery Suffern NY 845-369-7827
Rattlesnake Mountain Brewing Company Richland WA 509-783-5747
Real Ale Brewing Company Blanco TX 830-833-2534
Redhook Ale Brewery Seattle WA 206-548-8000
Red Rock Brewing Company Salt Lake City UT *
Red Star Brewery Greensburg PA 724-850-7245
Redwood Coast Brewing Company Mountain View CA 650-965-2739
Richbrau Brewery Richmond VA 804-644-3018
Rio Grande Brewing Company Albuquerque NM 505-343-0903
River Horse Brewery Lambertville NJ 609-397-7776
River Market Brewing Company Kansas City MO 816-471-6300
Rocky Bay Brewing Company Rockland ME 207-596-0300
Rocky River Brewery Sevierville TN 865-908-3686
Rogue Brewing Company Newport OR 541-867-3660
Rohrbach Brewing Company Rochester NY 716-594-9800
Ross Valley Brewing Company Fairfax CA 415-485-1005
Sackets Harbor Brewing Company Sackets Harbor NY 315-646-BREW
Saint Arnold Brewing Company Houston TX 713-686-9494
Saint Louis Brewery St Louis MO 314-241-BEER
Samuel Adams Boston MA *
Sand Creek Brewing Company Downing WI 715-265-7694
San Francisco Brewing Company San Francisco CA 415-434-3344
San Rafael Crafted Ales San Rafael CA 650-738-5760
Santa Barbara Brewing Company Santa Barbara CA *
Saranac Utica NY 315-732-3181
Saxer Brewing Portland OR 503-226-7623
Schooners Brewery Antioch CA 925-776-1800
Scuttlebutt Brewing Company Everett WA 425-257-9316
Seadog Brewing Company Camden ME 207-236-6863
Sebago Brewing Company Portland ME 207-775-BEER
Shipyard Brewing Company Portland ME 207-761-0807
Shmaltz Brewing Company San Francisco CA *
Sierra Nevada Brewing Company Chico CA 916-891-8555
Silver Gulch Brewing Company Fairbanks AK 907-452-2739
Sioux Falls Brewing Company Sioux Falls SD 605-332-4847
Ska Brewing Company Durango CO 970-247-5792
Skagit River Brewery Mount Vernon WA 360-336-2884
Slab City Brewing Company Bonduel WI 715-758-BEER
SLO Brewing Company San Luis Obispo CA 562-434-1565
Sly Fox Brewing Company Phoenixville PA 610-935-4540
Smoky Mountain Brewery Knoxville TN 865-673-3400
Smuttynose Brewing Company Portsmouth NH 603-436-4026
Snake River Brewing Company Jackson WY 307-739-BEER
Snipes Mountain Microbrewery Sunnyside WA 509-837-2739
Snoqualmie Falls Brewing Company Snoqualmie WA  425-831-BEER
Sonora Brewing Company Phoenix AZ 602-484-7775
Southampton Publick House Southampton NY 631-283-2800
Southern California Brewing Company Torrance CA 310-329-8881
Southport Brewing Company Southport CT 203-256-BEER
Spanish Peaks Brewing Company Bozeman MT 800-810-CHUG
Speakeasy Ales & Lagers San Francisco CA 415-822-8972
Spilker Ales Cortland NE 402-798-7445
Spoetzl Brewery Shiner TX *
Sprecher Brewing Company Glendale WI 414-964-2739
Springfield Brewing Company Springfield MO 417-832-TAPS
Stanislaus Brewing Company Modesto CA 209-524-BEER
Steel Brewing Company Longview TX *
Stevens Point Brewery Stevens Point WI 715-682-9199
Stone Brewing Company San Diego CA *
Stone City Brewing Solon IA 800-231-1077
Stone Coast Brewing Company Portland ME 207-773-2337
Stoney Creek Brewing Company Novi MI  248-335-7415
Stoudts Brewing Company Adamstown PA 717-484-4387
Straub Brewery St Marys PA 814-834-2875
Sudwerk Privatbrauerei Hubsch  Davis CA 530-758-8700
Summit Brewing Company St Paul MN 651-265-7800
Sweetwater Brewing Company Atlanta GA 404-691-2537
Syracuse Suds Factory Syracuse NY 315-471-AALE
Tampa Bay Brewing Company Tampa FL 813-247-1422
Thomas Creek Brewery Greenville SC 864-605-1166
Thomas Kemper Brewery Seattle WA 206-682-8322
Three Floyds Brewing Hammond IN 888-266-0294
TommyKnocker Breweries Phoenix AZ 602-262-2222
TrailHead Brewing Company St Charles MO 636-946-BREW
Traverse Brewing Company Williamsburg MI 231-264-9343
Tremont Brewery Boston MA 617-439-9011
Triple Rock Brewery Berkeley CA *
Triumph Brewing Company Princeton NJ  609-924-7855
Troegs Brewing Company Harrisburg PA 717-232-1297
Trout River Brewing Company Lyndonville VT 802-626-9396
Tuckerman Brewing Company Conway NH 603-447-5400
Two Brothers Brewing Company Warrenville IL 630-393-4800
Tyranena Brewing Company Lake Mills WI 920-648-8384
Uinta Brewing Company Salt Lake City UT 801-467-0909
Upland Brewing Company Bloomington IN 812-336-BEER
Upstream Brewing Company Omaha NE 402-344-0200
Valley Forge Brewing Company Wayne PA 610-687-8700
Victory Brewing Company Downington PA 610-280-2274
Viking Brewing Company Dallas WI  715-837-1824
Vine Park Brewing Company St Paul MN 651-228-1355
Wachusett Brewing Company Westminster MA 978-874-9965
Wagner Microbrewery Lodi NY 607-582-6450
Waimea Brewing Company Waimea HI 808-338-9733
Wasatch Brewery Park City UT 435-649-0900
Western Reserve Brewing Cleveland OH 216-361-2888
Weyerbacher Brewing Company Easton PA 215-804-0972
Whitefish Brewing Company Whitefish MT 406-862-2684
Widmer Brothers Brewing Company Portland OR 503-281-2437
Wild River Brewing Company Grants Pass OR 541-471-7487
Williamsburg Brewing Company Williamsburg VA 757-253-1577
Willimantic Brewing Company Willimantic CT 860-423-6777
Willoughby Brewing Company Willoughby OH 440-975-0202
Wolavers Organic Ales Nevada City CA 530-478-0492
Wynkoop Brewing Company Denver CO 303-297-2700
Yards Brewing Company Philadelphia PA 215-634-2600
Ybor City Brewing Company Tampa FL 813-242-9222
Yellowstone Valley Brewing Company Billings MT 406-245-0918
Yuengling Brewery Pottsville PA 570-622-4141
Z Street Brewing Company Fitchburg MA 978-343-BEER




Encino Park Liquor, Encino, California

A liquor store or bottle shop is a store that sells alcohol in bottles to the public, but where the public is forbidden from consuming alcohol on the premises.

In the American and Canadian liquor store is a name for a type of convenience store that specializes in the sale of alcoholic beverages in the countries where its consumption is strongly regulated. In alcoholic beverage control (ABC) states, liquor stores often sell only distilled spirits or sometimes sell distilled spirits and wine but not beer. ABC-run stores may be called ABC stores or State Stores. In Connecticut and Georgia, liquor stores are also known as "package stores" because purchased liquor must be in a sealed container and/or removed from the premises in a bag or other package.

In the UK and Ireland the corresponding term is Off-licence, or offie for short, which refers to the fact that the alcohol may be purchased on the premises but must be consumed off of the premises.

Interior of a liquor store.


  • Australia - Regulation of alcoholic beverage sales is a state responsibility. Generally, beer, wine and spirits must be purchased at a bottle shop, colloquially known as a bottle-o in some states. These may be a separate section of a supermarket or an individual store - major retail corporations usually have their own bottle shop franchises located in close proximity to their supermarket operations. Drinking establishments may also sell liquor for off-site consumption. Drive thru alcoholic retail outlets are common. The state of Victoria and the Australian Capital Territory permit the sale of alcoholic beverages from supermarkets and convenience stores; however, this is rare in practice due to a prohibition on the serving of alcohol by persons under the age of 18. In other states, attempts have been made to make alcoholic beverages available from a greater variety of retail outlets, but these have been repeatedly defeated, primarily due to the lobbying of the clubs, hotels, and pubs industry (which have vast gambling revenues), as well as the pressure of lobby groups who perceive that a more widespread availability of alcoholic beverages will increase the opportunity for harmful levels of alcohol consumption.

Nordic countries

Note: All Nordic countries, except Denmark, have government-owned alcohol monopolies.
  • Finland - Grocery stores may sell beer and other alcoholic beverages of less than 4.7% alcohol by volume (ABV), if the alcohol is produced by fermentation. All other alcohol must be purchased in the Alko store.
  • Iceland - Can only be bought at hard-liquor stores. Vínbúð stores.
  • Norway - Alcoholic beverages above 4.8% ABV can only be bought at Vinmonopolet stores.
  • Sweden - Grocery stores may sell beer less than 3.5% ABV. All other alcohol must be purchased in the state-run Systembolaget stores.
  • Faroe Islands - Alcoholic beverages above 1.8% ABV can be bought in "Rúsdrekkasøla Landsins", also known as "Rúsan"


  • Poland - All Supermarkets, convenience stores, and gas stations may sell beer, wine, and liquors.[citation needed]

United States

Some states in the United States run their own stores for the sale of certain types of alcohol, like this state run liquor store in Cottonwood Heights, Utah.
See: Alcohol laws of the United States by state

The Twenty-First Amendment to the United States Constitution allows states to regulate the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages. State regulations vary widely. The majority of the U.S. states have laws specifying which alcoholic beverages must be sold in specialty liquor stores, and which may be sold in other venues. In five states (Colorado, Kansas, Minnesota, Oklahoma, and Utah), only low-point beer may be sold in supermarkets or gas stations. In eighteen alcoholic beverage control states, the specialty liquor stores are run exclusively by the state government. In Louisiana, Missouri and Nevada, however, all alcoholic beverages can be sold practically anywhere, including drug stores and gas stations.



Leffe, a Belgian beer, served in its own branded glasses
Schlenkerla Rauchbier straight from the cask

Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of starches, mainly derived from cereal grains—most commonly malted barley, although wheat, maize (corn), and rice are widely used. Most beer is flavoured with hops, which add bitterness and act as a natural preservative, though other flavourings such as herbs or fruit may occasionally be included.

Some of humanity's earliest known writings refer to the production and distribution of beer: the Code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours, and "The Hymn to Ninkasi," a prayer to the Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer and as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people. Today, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries.

The basics of brewing beer are shared across national and cultural boundaries. Beers are commonly categorized into two main types—the globally popular pale lagers, and the regionally distinct ales, which are further categorised into other varieties such as pale ale, stout and brown ale. The strength of beer is usually around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume (abv.) though may range from less than 1% abv., to over 20% abv. in rare cases.

Beer forms part of the culture of beer-drinking nations and is associated with social traditions such as beer festivals, as well as a rich pub culture involving activities like pub crawling and pub games such as bar billiards.


Egyptian wooden model of beer making in ancient Egypt, Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum, San Jose, California

Beer is one of the world's oldest prepared beverages, possibly dating back to the early Neolithic or 9000 BC, and is recorded in the written history of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. The earliest Sumerian writings contain references to a type of beer. A prayer to the goddess Ninkasi, known as "The Hymn to Ninkasi", serves as both a prayer as well as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people. A beer made from rice, which, unlike sake, didn't use the amylolytic process, and was probably prepared for fementation by mastication or malting, was made in China around 7,000 BC.

As almost any substance containing carbohydrates, mainly sugars or starch, can naturally undergo fermentation, it is likely that beer-like beverages were independently invented among various cultures throughout the world. The invention of bread and beer has been argued to be responsible for humanity's ability to develop technology and build civilization. The earliest known chemical evidence of beer dates to circa 3500–3100 BC from the site of Godin Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran.

Beer was spread through Europe by Germanic and Celtic tribes as far back as 3000 BC, and it was mainly brewed on a domestic scale. The product that the early Europeans drank might not be recognised as beer by most people today. Alongside the basic starch source, the early European beers might contain fruits, honey, numerous types of plants, spices and other substances such as narcotic herbs. What they did not contain was hops, as that was a later addition first mentioned in Europe around 822 by a Carolingian Abbot and again in 1067 by Abbess Hildegard of Bingen.

Beer produced before the Industrial Revolution continued to be made and sold on a domestic scale, although by the 7th century AD, beer was also being produced and sold by European monasteries. During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, and domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century. The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process and greater knowledge of the results.

Today, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries. As of 2006, more than 133 billion liters (35 billion gallons), the equivalent of a cube 510 metres on a side, of beer are sold per year, producing total global revenues of $294.5 billion (£147.7 billion).


The process of making beer is known as brewing. A dedicated building for the making of beer is called a brewery, though beer can be made in the home and has been for much of its history. A company that makes beer is called either a brewery or a brewing company. Beer made on a domestic scale for non-commercial reasons is classed as homebrewing regardless of where it is made, though most homebrewed beer is made in the home. Brewing beer is subject to legislation and taxation in developed countries, which from the late 19th century largely restricted brewing to a commercial operation only. However, the UK government relaxed legislation in 1963, followed by Australia in 1972 and the USA in 1979, allowing homebrewing to become a popular hobby.

A 16th-century brewery

The purpose of brewing is to convert the starch source into a sugary liquid called wort and to convert the wort into the alcoholic beverage known as beer in a fermentation process effected by yeast.

The first step, where the wort is prepared by mixing the starch source (normally malted barley) with hot water, is known as "mashing". Hot water (known as "liquor" in brewing terms) is mixed with crushed malt or malts (known as "grist") in a mash tun. The mashing process takes around 1 to 2 hours, during which the starches are converted to sugars, and then the sweet wort is drained off the grains. The grains are now washed in a process known as "sparging". This washing allows the brewer to gather as much of the fermentable liquid from the grains as possible. The process of filtering the spent grain from the wort and sparge water is called wort separation. The traditional process for wort separation is lautering, in which the grain bed itself serves as the filter medium. Some modern breweries prefer the use of filter frames which allow a more finely ground grist. Most modern breweries use a continuous sparge, collecting the original wort and the sparge water together. However, it is possible to collect a second or even third wash with the not quite spent grains as separate batches. Each run would produce a weaker wort and thus a weaker beer. This process is known as second (and third) runnings. Brewing with several runnings is called parti gyle brewing.

The sweet wort collected from sparging is put into a kettle, or "copper", (so called because these vessels were traditionally made from copper) and boiled, usually for about one hour. During boiling, water in the wort evaporates, but the sugars and other components of the wort remain; this allows more efficient use of the starch sources in the beer. Boiling also destroys any remaining enzymes left over from the mashing stage. Hops are added during boiling as a source of bitterness, flavour and aroma. Hops may be added at more than one point during the boil. The longer the hops are boiled, the more bitterness they contribute, but the less hop flavour and aroma remains in the beer.

After boiling, the hopped wort is now cooled, ready for the yeast. In some breweries, the hopped wort may pass through a hopback, which is a small vat filled with hops, to add aromatic hop flavouring and to act as a filter; but usually the hopped wort is simply cooled for the fermenter, where the yeast is added. During fermentation, the wort becomes beer in a process which requires a week to months depending on the type of yeast and strength of the beer. In addition to producing alcohol, fine particulate matter suspended in the wort settles during fermentation. Once fermentation is complete, the yeast also settles, leaving the beer clear.

Fermentation is sometimes carried out in two stages, primary and secondary. Once most of the alcohol has been produced during primary fermentation, the beer is transferred to a new vessel and allowed a period of secondary fermentation. Secondary fermentation is used when the beer requires long storage before packaging or greater clarity. When the beer has fermented, it is packaged either into casks for cask ale or kegs, aluminum cans, or bottles for other sorts of beer.


Malted barley before roasting

The basic ingredients of beer are water; a starch source, such as malted barley, able to be fermented (converted into alcohol); a brewer's yeast to produce the fermentation; and a flavouring such as hops. A mixture of starch sources may be used, with a secondary starch source, such as maize (corn), rice or sugar, often being termed an adjunct, especially when used as a lower-cost substitute for malted barley. Less widely used starch sources include millet, sorghum and cassava root in Africa, potato in Brazil, and agave in Mexico, among others. The amount of each starch source in a beer recipe is collectively called the grain bill.


Beer is composed mostly of water. Regions have water with different mineral components; as a result, different regions were originally better suited to making certain types of beer, thus giving them a regional character. For example, Dublin has hard water well suited to making stout, such as Guinness; while Pilzen has soft water well suited to making pale lager, such as Pilsner Urquell. The waters of Burton in England contain gypsum, which benefits making pale ale to such a degree that brewers of pale ales will add gypsum to the local water in a process known as Burtonisation.

Starch source

The starch source in a beer provides the fermentable material and is a key determinant of the strength and flavour of the beer. The most common starch source used in beer is malted grain. Grain is malted by soaking it in water, allowing it to begin germination, and then drying the partially germinated grain in a kiln. Malting grain produces enzymes that convert starches in the grain into fermentable sugars. Different roasting times and temperatures are used to produce different colours of malt from the same grain. Darker malts will produce darker beers.

Nearly all beer includes barley malt as the majority of the starch. This is because of its fibrous husk, which is not only important in the sparging stage of brewing (in which water is washed over the mashed barley grains to form the wort), but also as a rich source of amylase, a digestive enzyme which facilitates conversion of starch into sugars. Other malted and unmalted grains (including wheat, rice, oats, and rye, and less frequently, corn and sorghum) may be used. In recent years, a few brewers have produced gluten-free beer made with sorghum with no barley malt for those who cannot consume gluten-containing grains like wheat, barley, and rye.


Flavouring beer is the sole major commercial use of hops. The flower of the hop vine is used as a flavouring and preservative agent in nearly all beer made today. The flowers themselves are often called "hops".

Hop cone in a Hallertau, Germany, hop yard

Hops were used by monastery breweries, such as Corvey in Westphalia, Germany, from 822 AD, though the date normally given for widespread cultivation of hops for use in beer is the thirteenth century. Before the thirteenth century, and until the sixteenth century, during which hops took over as the dominant flavouring, beer was flavoured with other plants; for instance, Glechoma hederacea. Combinations of various aromatic herbs, berries, and even ingredients like wormwood would be combined into a mixture known as gruit and used as hops are now used. Some beers today, such as Fraoch' by the Scottish Heather Ales company and Cervoise Lancelot by the French Brasserie-Lancelot company, use plants other than hops for flavouring.

Hops contain several characteristics that brewers desire in beer. Hops contribute a bitterness that balances the sweetness of the malt; the bitterness of beers is measured on the International Bitterness Units scale. Hops contribute floral, citrus, and herbal aromas and flavours to beer. Hops have an antibiotic effect that favours the activity of brewer's yeast over less desirable microorganisms, and hops aids in "head retention", the length of time that a foamy head created by carbonation will last. The acidity of hops is a preservative.


Yeast is the microorganism that is responsible for fermentation in beer. Yeast metabolises the sugars extracted from grains, which produces alcohol and carbon dioxide, and thereby turns wort into beer. In addition to fermenting the beer, yeast influences the character and flavour. The dominant types of yeast used to make beer are ale yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and lager yeast (Saccharomyces uvarum); their use distinguishes ale and lager. Brettanomyces ferments lambics, and Torulaspora delbrueckii ferments Bavarian weissbier. Before the role of yeast in fermentation was understood, fermentation involved wild or airborne yeasts. A few styles such as lambics rely on this method today, but most modern fermentation adds pure yeast cultures.

Clarifying agent

Some brewers add one or more clarifying agents to beer, which typically precipitate (collect as a solid) out of the beer along with protein solids and are found only in trace amounts in the finished product. This process makes the beer appear bright and clean, rather than the cloudy appearance of ethnic and older styles of beer such as wheat beers.

Examples of clarifying agents include isinglass, obtained from swimbladders of fish; Irish moss, a seaweed; kappa carrageenan, from the seaweed Kappaphycus cottonii; Polyclar (artificial); and gelatin. If a beer is marked "suitable for Vegans", it was clarified either with seaweed or with artificial agents.


Kriek, a variety of beer brewed with cherries

While there are many types of beer brewed, the basics of brewing beer are shared across national and cultural boundaries. The traditional European brewing regions—Germany, Belgium, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Poland, the Czech Republic, Scandinavia, the Netherlands and Austria—have local varieties of beer. In some countries, notably the USA, Canada, and Australia, brewers have adapted European styles to such an extent that they have effectively created their own indigenous types.

Michael Jackson, in his 1977 book The World Guide To Beer, categorised beers from around the world in local style groups suggested by local customs and names. Fred Eckhardt furthered Jackson's work in The Essentials of Beer Style in 1989.

The most common method of categorising beer is by the behaviour of the yeast used in the fermentation process. In this method, beers using a fast-acting yeast which leaves behind residual sugars are termed "top-fermented", while beers using a slower-acting yeast, fermented at lower temperatures, which removes most of the sugars, leaving a clean, dry beer, are termed "bottom-fermented".


Cask ale hand pumps with pump clips detailing the beers and their breweries

Ales are normally brewed with top-fermenting yeasts (most commonly Saccharomyces cerevisiae), though a number of British brewers, including Fullers and Weltons, use ale yeast strains that have less-pronounced top-fermentation characteristics.

Ale is typically fermented at temperatures between 15 and 24°C (60 and 75°F). At these temperatures, yeast produces significant amounts of esters and other secondary flavour and aroma products, and the result is often a beer with slightly "fruity" compounds resembling apple, pear, pineapple, banana, plum, or prune, among others.

A pint of Real Ale in a dimpled glass jug or mug.

Typically ales have a sweeter, fuller body than lagers.

Before the introduction of hops into England from the Netherlands in the 15th century, the name ale was exclusively applied to unhopped fermented beverages, the term beer being gradually introduced to describe a brew with an infusion of hops. This distinction no longer applies. The word ale may come from the Old English ealu, in turn from the Proto-Indo-European base *alut-, which holds connotations of "sorcery, magic, possession, intoxication".

Real ale is the term coined by the Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) in 1973 for "beer brewed from traditional ingredients, matured by secondary fermentation in the container from which it is dispensed, and served without the use of extraneous carbon dioxide". It is applied to bottle conditioned and cask conditioned beers.


Bitter is a British term for pale ale. It varies in strength from Boys Bitters under 3% abv to 7% abv strong bitters and in appearance from dark amber to golden ales.

By 1830, the expressions bitter and pale ale were synonymous in England where breweries would tend to designate beers as pale ale, though customers in the pub would commonly refer to the same beers as bitter.


Stout and porter are styles of dark ale made using roasted malts or roast barley, and brewed with top-fermenting ale yeast. There are a number of variations including Baltic porter, dry stout, and Imperial stout. The name Porter was first used in 1721 to describe a dark ale popular with street and river porters of London that had been made with roasted malts. This same beer later also became known as stout, though the word stout had been used as early as 1677. The history and development of stout and porter are intertwined.


Lager is the English name for cool fermenting beers of Central European origin. Pale lagers are the most commonly consumed beers in the world. The name lager comes from the German lagern for "to store", as brewers around Bavaria stored beer in cool cellars and caves during the warm summer months. These brewers noticed that the beers continued to ferment, and to also clear of sediment, when stored in cool conditions.

Lager yeast is a cool bottom-fermenting yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) and typically undergoes primary fermentation at 7–12 °C (45–54 °F) (the fermentation phase), and then is given a long secondary fermentation at 0–4 °C (32–39 °F) (the lagering phase). During the secondary stage, the lager clears and mellows. The cooler conditions also inhibit the natural production of esters and other byproducts, resulting in a "cleaner"-tasting beer.

Modern methods of producing lager were pioneered by Gabriel Sedlmayr the Younger, who perfected dark brown lagers at the Spaten Brewery in Bavaria, and Anton Dreher, who began brewing a lager, probably of amber-red colour, in Vienna in 1840–1841. With improved modern yeast strains, most lager breweries use only short periods of cold storage, typically 1–3 weeks.


German wheat beer

Wheat beer is brewed with a large proportion of wheat although it often also contains a significant proportion of malted barley. Wheat beers are usually top-fermented (in Germany they have to be by law). The flavour of wheat beers varies considerably, depending upon the specific style.


Hybrid beers include Altbier and Kölsch from the Rhineland, both of which are top fermented before being cold conditioned, i.e. lagered, and steam beer invented by German immigrants living in California and made with a type of bottom-fermenting yeast that can ferment at warmer temperatures.


Lambic, a beer of Belgium, is naturally fermented using wild yeasts, rather than cultivated. Many of these are not strains of brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and may have significant differences in aroma and sourness. Yeast varieties such as Brettanomyces bruxellensis and Brettanomyces lambicus are common in lambics. In addition, other organisms such as Lactobacillus bacteria produce acids which contribute to the sourness.


Beer colour is determined by the malt. The most common colour is a pale amber produced from using pale malts. Pale lager and pale ale are terms used for beers made from malt dried with coke. Coke was first used for roasting malt in 1642, but it was not until around 1703 that the term pale ale was used.

Paulaner dunkel - a dark lager

In terms of sales volume, most of today's beer is based on the pale lager brewed in 1842 in the town of Pilsen in the present-day Czech Republic. The modern pale lager is light in colour with a noticeable carbonation (fizzy bubbles) and a typical alcohol by volume content of around 5%. The Pilsner Urquell, Bitburger, and Heineken brands of beer are typical examples of pale lager, as are the American brands Budweiser, Coors, and Miller.

Dark beers are usually brewed from a pale malt or lager malt base with a small proportion of darker malt added to achieve the desired shade. Other colourants—such as caramel—are also widely used to darken beers. Very dark beers, such as stout, use dark or patent malts that have been roasted longer. Some have roasted unmalted barley.

Alcoholic strength

Beer ranges from less than 3% alcohol by volume (abv) to almost 30% abv. The alcohol content of beer varies by local practice or beer style. The pale lagers that most consumers are familiar with fall in the range of 4–6%, with a typical abv of 5%. The customary strength of British ales is quite low, with many session beers being around 4% abv. Some beers, such as table beer are of such low alcohol content (1%–4%) that they are served instead of soft drinks in some schools.

The alcohol in beer comes primarily from the metabolism of sugars that are produced during fermentation. The quantity of fermentable sugars in the wort and the variety of yeast used to ferment the wort are the primary factors that determine the amount of alcohol in the final beer. Additional fermentable sugars are sometimes added to increase alcohol content, and enzymes are often added to the wort for certain styles of beer (primarily "light" beers) to convert more complex carbohydrates (starches) to fermentable sugars. Alcohol is a byproduct of yeast metabolism and is toxic to the yeast; typical brewing yeast cannot survive at alcohol concentrations above 12% by volume. Low temperatures and too little fermentation time decreases the effectiveness of yeasts and consequently decreases the alcohol content.

Exceptionally strong beers

The strength of beers has climbed during the later years of the 20th century. Vetter 33, a 10.5% abv (33 degrees Plato, hence Vetter "33"), doppelbock, was listed in the 1994 Guinness Book of World Records as the strongest beer at that time, though Samichlaus, by the Swiss brewer Hürlimann, had also been listed by the Guinness Book of World Records as the strongest at 14% abv.

Since then, some brewers have used champagne yeasts to increase the alcohol content of their beers. Samuel Adams reached 20% abv with Millennium and then surpassed that amount to 25.6% abv with Utopias. The strongest beer brewed in Britain was Baz's Super Brew by Parish Brewery, a 23% abv beer. The beer that is claimed to be the strongest yet made is Tactical Nuclear Penguin, a 32% abv Imperial Stout made by BrewDog using the eisbock method of freeze distilling - in November 2009 the brewery freeze distilled a 10% ale, gradually removing the ice until the beer reached 32% abv. The German brewery Schorschbräu's Schorschbock—a 31% abv eisbock, and Hair of the Dog's Dave—a 29% abv barley wine made in 1994, both used the same freeze distilling method.

Related beverages

Around the world, there are a number of traditional and ancient starch-based beverages classed as beer. In Africa, there are various ethnic beers made from sorghum or millet, such as Oshikundu in Namibia and Tella in Ethiopia. Kyrgyzstan also has a beer made from millet; it is a low alcohol, somewhat porridge-like drink called "Bozo". Bhutan, Nepal, Tibet and Sikkim also use millet in Chhaang, a popular semi-fermented rice/millet drink in the eastern Himalayas. Further east in China are found Huangjiu and Choujiu—traditional rice-based beverages related to beer.

The Andes in South America has Chicha, made from germinated maize (corn); while the indigenous peoples in Brazil have Cauim, a traditional beverage made since pre-Columbian times by chewing manioc so that enzymes present in human saliva can break down the starch into fermentable sugars; this is similar to Masato in Peru.

Some beers which are made from bread, which is linked to the earliest forms of beer, are Sahti in Finland, Kvass in Russia and the Ukraine, and Bouza in Sudan.

Brewing industry

Cropton, a typical UK microbrewery

The brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries. More than 133 billion liters (35 billion gallons) are sold per year—producing total global revenues of $294.5 billion (£147.7 billion) in 2006.

A microbrewery, or craft brewery, is a modern brewery which produces a limited amount of beer. The maximum amount of beer a brewery can produce and still be classed as a microbrewery varies by region and by authority, though is usually around 15,000 barrels (18,000 hectolitres/ 475,000 US gallons) a year. A brewpub is a type of microbrewery that incorporates a pub or other eating establishment.

SABMiller became the largest brewing company in the world when it acquired Royal Grolsch, brewer of Dutch premium beer brand Grolsch. InBev was the second-largest beer-producing company in the world, and Anheuser-Busch held the third spot, but after the merger between InBev and Anheuser-Busch, the new Anheuser-Busch InBev company is the largest brewer in the world.



Draught beer keg fonts at the Delirium Café in Brussels

Draught beer from a pressurised keg is the most common method of dispensing in bars around the world. A metal keg is pressurised with carbon dioxide (CO2) gas which drives the beer to the dispensing tap or faucet. Some beers may be served with a nitrogen/carbon dioxide mixture. Nitrogen produces fine bubbles, resulting in a dense head and a creamy mouthfeel. Some types of beer can also be found in smaller, disposable kegs called beer balls.

In the 1980s, Guinness introduced the beer widget, a nitrogen-pressurised ball inside a can which creates a dense, tight head, similar to beer served from a nitrogen system. The words draft and draught can be used as marketing terms to describe canned or bottled beers containing a beer widget, or which are cold-filtered rather than pasteurised.

A selection of cask beers

Cask-conditioned ales (or cask ales) are unfiltered and unpasteurised beers. These beers are termed "real ale" by the CAMRA organisation. Typically, when a cask arrives in a pub, it is placed horizontally on a frame called a "stillage" which is designed to hold it steady and at the right angle, and then allowed to cool to cellar temperature (typically between 12–14 °C / 54–57 °F), before being tapped and vented—a tap is driven through a (usually rubber) bung at the bottom of one end, and a hard spile or other implement is used to open a hole in the side of the cask, which is now uppermost. The act of stillaging and then venting a beer in this manner typically disturbs all the sediment, so it must be left for a suitable period to "drop" (clear) again, as well as to fully condition—this period can take anywhere from several hours to several days. At this point the beer is ready to sell, either being pulled through a beer line with a hand pump, or simply being "gravity-fed" directly into the glass.


Bottles of beer from the Spoetzl Brewery

Most beers are cleared of yeast by filtering when packaged in bottles and cans. However, bottle conditioned beers retain some yeast—either by being unfiltered, or by being filtered and then reseeded with fresh yeast. It is usually recommended that the beer be poured slowly, leaving any yeast sediment at the bottom of the bottle. However, some drinkers prefer to pour in the yeast; this practice is customary with wheat beers. Typically, when serving a hefeweizen, 90% of the contents are poured, and the remainder is swirled to suspend the sediment before pouring it into the glass. Alternatively, the bottle may be inverted prior to opening. Glass bottles are always used for bottle conditioned beers.

Many beers are sold in cans, though there is considerable variation in the proportion between different countries. In Sweden in 2001, 63.9% of beer was sold in cans. People either drink from the can or pour the beer into a glass. Cans protect the beer from light (thereby preventing "skunked" beer) and have a seal less prone to leaking over time than bottles. Cans were initially viewed as a technological breakthrough for maintaining the quality of a beer, then became commonly associated with less expensive, mass-produced beers, even though the quality of storage in cans is much like bottles. Plastic (PET) bottles are used by some breweries.

Serving temperature

The temperature of a beer has an influence on a drinker's experience; warmer temperatures reveal the range of flavours in a beer; however, cooler temperatures are more refreshing. Most drinkers prefer pale lager to be served chilled, a low- or medium-strength pale ale to be served cool, while a strong barley wine or imperial stout to be served at room temperature.

Édouard Manet's The Waitress showing a woman serving beer

Beer writer Michael Jackson proposed a five-level scale for serving temperatures: well chilled (7 °C/45 °F) for "light" beers (pale lagers); chilled (8 °C/46 °F) for Berliner Weisse and other wheat beers; lightly chilled (9 °C/48 °F) for all dark lagers, altbier and German wheat beers; cellar temperature (13 °C/55 °F) for regular British ale, stout and most Belgian specialities; and room temperature (15.5 °C/59.9 °F) for strong dark ales (especially trappist beer) and barley wine.

Drinking chilled beer is a social trend that began with the development of artificial refrigeration and by the 1870s, was spread in those countries that concentrated on brewing pale lager. Chilling below 15.5 °C (59.9 °F) starts to reduce taste awareness and reduces it significantly below 10 °C (50 °F); while this is acceptable for beers without an appreciable aroma or taste profile, beers brewed with more than basic refreshment in mind reveal their flavours more when served unchilled—either cool or at room temperature. Cask Marque, a non-profit UK beer organisation, has set a temperature standard range of 12°-14°C (53°-57°F) for cask ales to be served.


Beer is consumed out of a variety of vessels, such as a glass, a beer stein, a mug, a pewter tankard, a beer bottle or a can. The shape of the glass from which beer is consumed can influence the perception of the beer and can define and accent the character of the style. Breweries offer branded glassware intended only for their own beers as a marketing promotion, as this increases sales.

The pouring process has an influence on a beer's presentation. The rate of flow from the tap or other serving vessel, tilt of the glass, and position of the pour (in the centre or down the side) into the glass all influence the end result, such as the size and longevity of the head, lacing (the pattern left by the head as it moves down the glass as the beer is drunk), and turbulence of the beer and its release of carbonation.

Beer and society

Social context

Inside a tent at Munich's Oktoberfest—the world's largest beer festival

Various social traditions and activities are associated with beer drinking, such as playing cards, darts, bags, or other pub games; attending beer festivals, or visiting a series of different pubs in one evening; joining an organisation such as CAMRA; or rating beer. Various drinking games, such as beer pong, flip cup and quarters are also popular.

International consumption

Beer is considered to be a social lubricant in many societies, and is consumed in countries all over the world. There are breweries in Middle Eastern countries such as Lebanon, Iraq, and Syria, as well as African countries (see African beer). Sales of beer are four times that of wine, the second most popular alcoholic beverage. In Russia, consumption is on the rise as younger generations are choosing beer over vodka. In most societies, beer is the most popular alcoholic beverage.

Health effects

The main active ingredient of beer is alcohol, and therefore, the health effects of alcohol apply to beer. See Short-term effects of alcohol and Long-term effects of alcohol.

Brewer's yeast is known to be a rich source of nutrients; therefore, as expected, beer can contain significant amounts of nutrients, including magnesium, selenium, potassium, phosphorus, biotin, and B vitamins. In fact, beer is sometimes referred to as "liquid bread". Some sources maintain that filtered beer loses much of its nutrition.

A 2005 Japanese study found that low alcohol beer may possess strong anti-cancer properties. Another study found nonalcoholic beer to mirror the cardiovascular benefits associated with moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages. However, much research suggests that the primary health benefit from alcoholic beverages comes from the alcohol they contain.

It is considered that overeating and lack of muscle tone is the main cause of a beer belly, rather than beer consumption. A recent study, however, found a link between binge drinking and a beer belly. But with most overconsumption, it is more a problem of improper exercise and overconsumption of carbohydrates than the product itself. Several diet books quote beer as having the same glycemic index as maltose, a very high (and therefore undesirable) 110; however, the maltose undergoes metabolism by yeast during fermentation so that beer consists mostly of water, hop oils and only trace amounts of sugars, including maltose.



Three glasses of the three wine colors (from left to right), white, rosé and red.
16th century wine press
Wine boy at a symposium

Wine is an alcoholic beverage typically made of fermented grape juice. The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes or other nutrients. Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast consumes the sugars found in the grapes and converts them into alcohol. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the type of wine being produced.

Although other fruits such as apples and berries can also be fermented, the resultant wines are normally named after the fruit from which they are produced (for example, apple wine or elderberry wine) and are generically known as fruit wine or country wine (not to be confused with the French term vin de pays). Others, such as barley wine and rice wine (i.e., sake), are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer and spirit more than wine, while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. In these cases, the use of the term "wine" is a reference to the higher alcohol content, rather than production process. The commercial use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions.

Wine has a rich history dating back to around 6000 BC and is thought to have originated in areas now within the borders of Georgia and Iran. Wine probably appeared in Europe at about 4500 BC in what is now Bulgaria, Macedonia and Greece, and was very common in ancient Greece, Thrace and Rome. Wine has also played an important role in religion throughout history. The Greek god Dionysos and the Roman equivalent Bacchus represented wine, and the drink is also used in Christian and Jewish ceremonies such as the Eucharist (also called the Holy Communion) and Kiddush.

The word "wine" derives from the Proto-Germanic "*winam," an early borrowing from the Latin vinum, "wine" or "(grape) vine," itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o- (cf. Hittite: wiyana ,Lycian: Oino, Ancient Greek ????? - oînos, Aeolic Greek ?????? - woinos).


Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest production of wine, made by fermenting grapes, took place in sites in Georgia and Iran, from as early as 6000 BC. These locations are all within the natural area of the European grapevine Vitis vinifera.

A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were used together with rice to produce mixed fermented beverages in China as early as 7000 BC. Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu, Henan were found to contain traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds commonly found in wine. However, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, could not be ruled out. If these beverages, which seem to be the precursors of rice wine, included grapes rather than other fruits, these grapes were of any of the several dozen indigenous wild species of grape in China, rather than from Vitis vinifera, which were introduced into China some 6000 years later.

The oldest known evidence of wine production in Europe is dated to 4500 BC and comes from archaeological sites in Greece. The same sites also contain the world’s earliest evidence of crushed grapes. In Ancient Egypt, six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y", a royal chief vintner. Five of these amphoras were designated as from the King's personal estate with the sixth listed as from the estate of the royal house of Aten. Traces of wine have also been found in central Asian Xinjiang, dating from the second and first millennia BC.

In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church was a staunch supporter of wine since it was necessary for the celebration of Mass. Monks in France made wine for years, storing it underground in caves to age. There is an old English recipe which survived in various forms until the nineteenth century for refining white wine using Bastard—bad or tainted bastardo wine. Wine was forbidden during the Islamic Golden Age, until Geber and other Muslim chemists pioneered its distillation for cosmetic and medical uses.

Grape varieties

Grape vineyard

Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera, such as Pinot Noir, Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot. When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as a minimum of 75% or 85%), the result is a varietal, as opposed to a blended, wine. Blended wines are not necessarily considered inferior to varietal wines; some of the world's most expensive wines, from regions like Bordeaux and the Rhone Valley, are blended from different grape varieties of the same vintage.[citation needed]

Wine can also be made from other species of grape or from hybrids, created by the genetic crossing of two species. Vitis labrusca (of which the Concord grape is a cultivar), Vitis aestivalis, Vitis rupestris, Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis riparia are native North American grapes usually grown for consumption as fruit or for the production of grape juice, jam, or jelly, but sometimes made into wine.

Hybridization is not to be confused with the practice of grafting. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European V. vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species rootstock. This is common practice because North American grape species are resistant to phylloxera, a root louse that eventually kills the vine. In the late 19th century, most of Europe's vineyards (only excluding some of the driest vineyards in Southern Europe) were devastated by the bug, leading to massive vine deaths and eventual replanting. Grafting is done in every wine-producing country of the world except for Argentina, the Canary Islands and Chile, which are the only ones that have not yet been exposed to the insect.

In the context of wine production, terroir is a concept that encompasses the varieties of grapes used, elevation and shape of the vineyard, type and chemistry of soil, climate and seasonal conditions, and the local yeast cultures. The range of possibilities here can result in great differences between wines, influencing the fermentation, finishing, and aging processes as well. Many wineries use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir. However, flavor differences are not desirable for producers of mass-market table wine or other cheaper wines, where consistency is more important. Such producers will try to minimize differences in sources of grapes by using production techniques such as micro-oxygenation, tannin filtration, cross-flow filtration, thin film evaporation, and spinning cones.


Wine grapes on a vine

Regulations govern the classification and sale of wine in many regions of the world. European wines tend to be classified by region (e.g. Bordeaux and Chianti), while non-European wines are most often classified by grape (e.g. Pinot Noir and Merlot). More and more, however, market recognition of particular regions is leading to their increased prominence on non-European wine labels. Examples of non-European recognized locales include Napa Valley in California, Willamette Valley in Oregon, Columbia Valley in Washington, Barossa Valley and Hunter Valley in Australia, Central Valley in Chile, Vale dos Vinhedos in Brazil, Hawke's Bay and Marlborough in New Zealand, Okanagan Valley and Niagara Peninsula in Canada.

Some blended wine names are marketing terms, and the use of these names is governed by trademark law rather than by specific wine laws. For example, Meritage (sounds like "heritage") is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, and may also include Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, and Malbec. Commercial use of the term "Meritage" is allowed only via licensing agreements with an organization called the "Meritage Association".

European classifications

France has various appellation systems based on the concept of terroir, with classifications ranging from Vin de Table ("table wine") at the bottom, through Vin de Pays and Appellation d'Origine Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (AOVDQS) up to Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) or similar, depending on the region. Portugal has something similar and, in fact, pioneered this technique back in 1756 with a royal charter which created the "Demarcated Douro Region" and regulated wine production and trade. Germany did likewise in 2002, although their system has not yet achieved the authority of those of the other countries'. Spain, Greece and Italy have classifications which are based on a dual system of region of origin and quality of product.

Beyond Europe

New World wine—wines from outside of the traditional wine growing regions of Europe tend to be classified by grape rather than by terroir or region of origin, although there have been non-official attempts to classify them by quality.


A "vintage wine" is one made from grapes that were all or mostly grown in a particular year, and labeled as such. Most countries allow a vintage wine to include a portion that is not from the labeled vintage. Variations in a wine's character from year to year can include subtle differences in color, palate, nose, body and development. High-quality red table wines can improve in flavor with age if properly stored. Consequently, it is not uncommon for wine enthusiasts and traders to save bottles of an especially good vintage wine for future consumption.

In the United States, for a wine to be vintage dated and labeled with a country of origin or American Viticultural Area (AVA) (such as "Sonoma Valley"), it must contain at least 95% of its volume from grapes harvested in that year. If a wine is not labeled with a country of origin or AVA the percentage requirement is lowered to 85%.

Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each bottle will have a similar taste. Climate can have a big impact on the character of a wine to the extent that different vintages from the same vineyard can vary dramatically in flavor and quality. Thus, vintage wines are produced to be individually characteristic of the vintage and to serve as the flagship wines of the producer. Superior vintages, from reputable producers and regions, will often fetch much higher prices than their average vintages. Some vintage wines, like Brunellos, are only made in better-than-average years.

Non-vintage wines can be blended from more than one vintage for consistency, a process which allows wine makers to keep a reliable market image and maintain sales even in bad years. One recent study suggests that for normal drinkers, vintage year may not be as significant to perceived wine quality as currently thought, although wine connoisseurs continue to place great importance on it.


Judging color is the first step in tasting a wine

Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. Wines are made up of chemical compounds which are similar or identical to those in fruits, vegetables, and spices. The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation, relative to the acidity present in the wine. Dry wine, for example, has only a small amount of residual sugar. Inexperienced wine drinkers often tend to mistake the taste of ripe fruit for sweetness when, in fact, the wine in question is very dry.

Individual flavors may also be detected, due to the complex mix of organic molecules such as esters and terpenes that grape juice and wine can contain. Tasters often can distinguish between flavors characteristic of a specific grape (e.g., Chianti and sour cherry) and flavors that result from other factors in wine making, either intentional or not. The most typical intentional flavor elements in wine are those that are imparted by aging in oak casks; chocolate, vanilla, or coffee almost always come from the oak and not the grape itself.

Banana flavors (isoamyl acetate) are the product of yeast metabolism, as are spoilage aromas such as sweaty, barnyard, band-aid (4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol), and rotten egg (hydrogen sulfide). Some varietals can also have a mineral flavor, because some salts are soluble in water (like limestone), and are absorbed by the wine.

Wine aroma comes from volatile compounds in the wine that are released into the air. Vaporization of these compounds can be sped up by twirling the wine glass or serving the wine at room temperature. For red wines that are already highly aromatic, like Chinon and Beaujolais, many people prefer them chilled.


Château Margaux, a First Growth from the Bordeaux region of France, is highly collectible.

Outstanding vintages from the best vineyards may sell for thousands of dollars per bottle, though the broader term fine wine covers bottles typically retailing at over about $US 30-50. "Investment wines" are considered by some to be Veblen goods—that is, goods for which demand increases instead of decreases as its price rises. The most common wines purchased for investment include those from Bordeaux, Burgundy, cult wines from Europe and elsewhere, and Vintage port. Characteristics of highly collectible wines include:

  1. A proven track record of holding well over time
  2. A drinking window plateau (i.e., the period for maturity and approachability) that is many years long
  3. A consensus amongst experts as to the quality of the wines
  4. Rigorous production methods at every stage, including grape selection and appropriate barrel-aging

Investment in fine wine has attracted fraudsters who prey on their victims' ignorance of this sector of the wine market. Wine fraudsters often work by charging excessively high prices for off-vintage or lower-status wines from famous wine regions, while claiming that they are offering a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles. Like any investment, proper research is essential before investing.


Wine production by country 2006
Rank Country
(with link to wine article)
1 France France 5,349,333
2 Italy Italy 4,711,665
3 Spain Spain 3,643,666
4 United States United States 2,232,000
5 Argentina Argentina 1,539,600
6 Australia Australia 1,410,483
7 People's Republic of China China 1,400,000
8 South Africa South Africa 1,012,980
9 Chile Chile 977,087
10 Germany Germany 891,600
Wine production by country 2007
Rank Country
(with link to wine article)
1 Italy Italy 5,050,000
2 France France 4,711,600
3 Spain Spain 3,645,000
4 United States United States 2,300,000
5 Argentina Argentina 1,550,000
6 People's Republic of China China 1,450,000
7 South Africa South Africa 1,050,000
8 Australia Australia 961,972
9 Germany Germany 891,600
10 Chile Chile 827,746

Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between thirty and fifty degrees north or south of the equator. The world's southernmost vineyards are in the Central Otago region of New Zealand's South Island near the 45th parallel, and the northernmost are in Flen, Sweden, just north of the 59th parallel.

Exporting countries

Top ten wine exporting countries in 2006
Rank Country 1000 tonnes
1 Italy Italy* 1,793
2 France France 1,462
3 Spain Spain* 1,337
4 Australia Australia 762
5 Chile Chile* 472
6 United States United States 369
7 Germany Germany 316
8 Argentina Argentina 302
9 Portugal Portugal 286
10 South Africa South Africa 272
World** 8,353

* Unofficial figure. ** May include official, semi-official or estimated data.

2006 export market shares
Rank Country Market share
(% of value in US$)
1 France France 34.9%
2 Italy Italy 18.0%
3 Australia Australia 9.3%
4 Spain Spain 8.7%
5 Chile Chile 4.3%
6 United States United States 3.6%
7 Germany Germany 3.5%
8 Portugal Portugal 3.0%
9 South Africa South Africa 2.4%
10 New Zealand New Zealand 1.8%

The UK was the world's biggest importer of wine in 2007.


Per capita annual wine consumption:      less than 1 litre.      from 1 to 7 litres.      from 7 to 15 litres.      from 15 to 30 litres.      More than 30 litres.

Wine is a popular and important beverage that accompanies and enhances a wide range of European and Mediterranean-style cuisines, from the simple and traditional to the most sophisticated and complex. Wine is important in cuisine not just for its value as a beverage, but as a flavor agent, primarily in stocks and braising, since its acidity lends balance to rich savory or sweet dishes. Red, white, and sparkling wines are the most popular, and are known as light wines because they are only 10–14% alcohol-content by volume. Apéritif and dessert wines contain 14–20% alcohol, and are sometimes fortified to make them richer and sweeter.

Some wine labels suggest opening the bottle and letting the wine "breathe" for a couple of hours before serving, while others recommend drinking it immediately. Decanting—the act of pouring a wine into a special container just for breathing—is a controversial subject in wine. In addition to aeration, decanting with a filter allows one to remove bitter sediments that may have formed in the wine. Sediment is more common in older bottles but younger wines usually benefit more from aeration.

During aeration, the exposure of younger wines to air often "relaxes" the flavors and makes them taste smoother and better integrated in aroma, texture, and flavor. Older wines generally fade, or lose their character and flavor intensity, with extended aeration. Despite these general rules, breathing does not necessarily benefit all wines. Wine should be tasted as soon as it is opened to determine how long it should be aerated, if at all.

Health effects

Red table wine
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 355 kJ (85 kcal)
Carbohydrates 2.6 g
Sugars 0.6 g
Fat 0.0 g
Protein 0.1 g
Alcohol 10.6 g
10.6 g alcohol is 13%vol.
100 g wine is approximately 100 ml (3.4 fl oz.)
Sugar and alcohol content can vary.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Although excessive alcohol consumption has adverse health effects, epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that moderate consumption of alcohol and wine is statistically associated with a decrease in death due to cardiovascular events such as heart failure. In the United States, a boom in red wine consumption was initiated in the 1990s by the TV show 60 Minutes, and additional news reports on the French paradox. The French paradox refers to the comparatively lower incidence of coronary heart disease in France despite high levels of saturated fat in the traditional French diet. Some epidemiologists suspect that this difference is due to the higher consumption of wines by the French, but the scientific evidence for this theory is limited. The average moderate wine drinker is more likely to exercise more, to be more health conscious, and to be of a higher educational and socioeconomic class, evidence that the association between moderate wine drinking and health may be related to confounding factors.

Population studies have observed a J curve association between wine consumption and the risk of heart disease. This means that heavy drinkers have an elevated risk, while moderate drinkers (at most two five-ounce servings of wine per day) have a lower risk than non-drinkers. Studies have also found that moderate consumption of other alcoholic beverages may be cardioprotective, although the association is considerably stronger for wine. Also, some studies have found increased health benefits for red wine over white wine, though other studies have found no difference. Red wine contains more polyphenols than white wine, and these are thought to be particularly protective against cardiovascular disease.

A chemical in red wine called resveratrol has been shown to have both cardioprotective and chemoprotective effects in animal studies. Low doses of resveratrol in the diet of middle-aged mice has a widespread influence on the genetic levers of aging and may confer special protection on the heart. Specifically, low doses of resveratrol mimic the effects of what is known as caloric restriction - diets with 20-30 percent fewer calories than a typical diet. Resveratrol is produced naturally by grape skins in response to fungal infection, including exposure to yeast during fermentation. As white wine has minimal contact with grape skins during this process, it generally contains lower levels of the chemical. Other beneficial compounds in wine include other polyphenols, antioxidants, and flavonoids.

Red wines from the south of France and from Sardinia in Italy have been found to have the highest levels of procyanidins, which are compounds in grape seeds suspected to be responsible for red wine's heart benefits. Red wines from these areas have between two and four times as much procyanidins as other red wines. Procyanidins suppress the synthesis of a peptide called endothelin-1 that constricts blood vessels.

A 2007 study found that both red and white wines are effective anti-bacterial agents against strains of Streptococcus. Also, a report in the October 2008 issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, posits that moderate consumption of red wine may decrease the risk of lung cancer in men.

While evidence from laboratory and epidemiological (observational) studies suggest a cardioprotective effect, no controlled studies have been completed on the effect of alcoholic drinks on the risk of developing heart disease or stroke. Excessive consumption of alcohol can cause cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism; the American Heart Association cautions people to "consult your doctor on the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation."

Wine's effect on the brain is also under study. One study concluded that wine made from the Cabernet Sauvignon grape reduces the risk of Alzheimer's Disease. Another study concluded that among alcoholics, wine damages the hippocampus to a greater degree than other alcoholic beverages.

Sulphites are present in all wines and are formed as a natural product of the fermentation process, and many wine producers add sulfur dioxide in order to help preserve wine. Sulfur dioxide is also added to foods such as dried apricots and orange juice. The level of added sulfites varies, and some wines have been marketed with low sulfite content. Sulphites in wine can cause some people, particularly those with asthma, to have adverse reactions.

Professor Valerie Beral from the University of Oxford and lead author of the The Million Women Study asserts that the positive health effects of red wine are "an absolute myth." Professor Roger Corder, author of The Red Wine Diet, counters that two small glasses of a very tannic, procyanadin rich wine would confer a benefit, although "most supermarket wines are low procyanadin and high alcohol."


Assorted wine corks

Most wines are sold in glass bottles and are sealed using corks (50% of production comes from Portugal).[citation needed] An increasing number of wine producers have been using alternative closures such as screwcaps, or synthetic plastic "corks". In addition to being less expensive, alternative closures prevent cork taint, although they have been blamed for other problems such as excessive reduction.[citation needed]

Some wines are packaged in heavy plastic bags within cardboard boxes, and are called box wines, or cask wine. These wines are typically accessed via a tap on the side of the box. Box wine can maintain an acceptable degree of freshness for up to a month after opening, while bottled wine will more rapidly oxidize, and is considerably degraded within a few days.

Environmental considerations of wine packaging reveal benefits and drawbacks of both bottled and box wines. Glass used to make bottles has a decent environmental reputation, as it is completely recyclable, whereas plastics as used in box wines are typically considered to be much less environmentally friendly. However, wine bottle manufacturers have been cited for Clean Air Act violations. A New York Times editorial suggested that box wine, being lighter in package weight, has a reduced carbon footprint from its distribution. Boxed wine plastics, even though possibly recyclable, can be more labor-intensive (and therefore expensive) to process than glass bottles. And while a wine box is recyclable, its plastic wine bladder most likely is not.


Wine cellars, or wine rooms if they are above-ground, are places designed specifically for the storage and aging of wine. In an active wine cellar, temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate control system. Passive wine cellars are not climate-controlled, and so must be carefully located. Wine is a natural, perishable food product; when exposed to heat, light, vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity, all types of wine, including red, white, sparkling, and fortified, can spoil. When properly stored, wines can maintain their quality and in some cases improve in aroma, flavor, and complexity as they age. Some wine experts contend that the optimal temperature for aging wine is 55 °F (13 °C)., others 59 °F (15 °C) , Wine refrigerators offer an alternative to wine cellars. They are available in capacities ranging from small 16-bottle units to furniture pieces that can contain 400 bottles.

Oak Wine Barrels
Related professions
Name Description
Cooper Craftsman of wooden barrels and casks. A cooperage is a company that produces such casks.
Garagiste An amateur wine maker, or a derogatory term used for small scale operations of recent inception, usually without pedigree and located in Bordeaux.
Négociant A wine merchant, most specifically those who assemble the produce of smaller growers and winemakers and sells them under their own name.
Oenologist Wine scientist or wine chemist; a student of oenology. A winemaker may be trained as oenologist, but often hires a consultant instead.
Sommelier A restaurant specialist in charge of assembling the wine list, educating the staff about wine, and assisting customers with their wine selections.
Vintner, Winemaker A wine producer; a person who makes wine.
Viticulturist A person who specializes in the science of grapevines. Can also be someone who manages vineyard pruning, irrigation, and pest control.

In popular culture

  • Falcon Crest, USA 1981–1990: A popular CBS primetime soap opera about the fictional Falcon Crest winery and the family who owned it, set in a fictional "Tuscany Valley" in California. A wine named "Falcon Crest" even went on the market.
  • A Walk in the Clouds 1995. A love story set in a Mexican-American family's traditional vineyard showcasing different moments in the production of wine.
  • Mondovino, USA/France 2004. A documentary film directed by American film maker Jonathan Nossiter, exploring the impact of globalization on various wine-producing regions.
  • Sideways, 2004. A comedy/drama film, directed by Alexander Payne, with the tagline: "In search of wine. In search of women. In search of themselves." Wine, particularly Pinot Noir, plays a central role. The film caused the Pinot Noir sales to rise in the USA, known as 'the Sideways Effect'.
  • A Good Year, 2006. Ridley Scott directs Russell Crowe in an adaptation of Peter Mayle's novel.
  • Oz and James's Big Wine Adventure, UK 2006–7. "Wine ponce" Oz Clarke tries to teach motor head James May about wine. The first series saw them traveling through the wine regions of France, and the second series saw them drive throughout California.
  • Crush, USA 2007. Produced and directed by Bret Lyman, this is a documentary short that covers the 2006 grape harvest and crush in California's wine country. It also features winemaker Richard Bruno.
  • Bottle Shock (USA 2008) tells a story centered around the Paris Wine Tasting of 1976, in addition to portraying the birth of the Napa wine industry.
  • The Judgment of Paris (in production, USA 2010) is to based on journalist George M. Taber's account of the same Paris Wine Tasting of 1976 that was fictionalized in Bottle Shock.
  • Red Red Wine is a song written by Neil Diamond, and made popular in the 1980s by UB40.


Some typical alcoholic beverages

An alcoholic beverage is a drink that contains ethanol (commonly called alcohol). Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes: beers, wines, and spirits.

Alcoholic beverages are consumed in most sovereign states. Each nation has laws that regulate their production, sale, and consumption. In particular, such laws specify the minimum age at which a person may legally buy or drink them. The minimum age varies between 16 and 25 depending on the nation and the type of drink. Most nations set it at 18 years of age.

The production and consumption of alcohol occurs in most cultures of the world, from hunter-gatherer peoples to nation-states. Alcoholic beverages are often an important part of social events in these cultures. In many cultures, drinking plays a significant role in social interaction — mainly because of alcohol’s neurological effects.

Alcohol is a psychoactive drug that has a depressant effect. A high blood alcohol content is usually considered to be legal drunkenness because it reduces attention and slows reaction speed. Alcoholic beverages can be addictive, and the state of addiction to alcohol is known as alcoholism.


Alcoholic beverages that have a lower alcohol content (beer and wine) are produced by fermentation of sugar- or starch-containing plant material; beverages of higher alcohol content (spirits) are produced by fermentation followed by distillation.


Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of starches which are mainly derived from cereal grains — most commonly malted barley although wheat, maize (corn), and rice are also used. Alcoholic beverages which are distilled after fermentation, fermented from non-cereal sources such as grapes or honey, or fermented from un-malted cereal grain, are not classified as beer.

Most beer is flavored with hops, which add bitterness and act as a natural preservative. Other flavorings, such as fruits or herbs, may also be used. The alcoholic strength of beer is usually 4% to 6% alcohol by volume (abv), but it may be less than 1% or more than 20%.

Beer is part of the culture of various nations and has acquired social traditions such as beer festivals and pub culture, which involves activities such as pub crawling and pub games.

The basics of brewing beer are shared across national and cultural boundaries. The two main types of beer are lager and ale, which is further classified into varieties such as pale ale, stout, and brown ale. The beer-brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and thousands of smaller producers, which range from brewpubs to regional breweries.


Wine involves a longer (complete) fermentation process and a long aging process (months or years) that results in an alcohol content of 9%–16% ABV. Sparkling wine can be made by adding a small amount of sugar before bottling, which causes a secondary fermentation to occur in the bottle.


Unsweetened, distilled, alcoholic beverages that have an alcohol content of at least 20% ABV are called spirits. Spirits are produced by distillation of a fermented product; this process concentrates the alcohol and eliminates some of the congeners.

Spirits can be added to wines to create fortified wines, such as port and sherry.

Alcohol content of beverages

The concentration of alcohol in a beverage is usually stated as the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV) or—in the United States—as proof. In the U.S.A., proof is twice the percentage of alcohol by volume at 60 degrees Fahrenheit (e.g., 80 proof = 40% ABV). Degrees proof were formerly used in the United Kingdom, where 100 degrees proof was equivalent to 57.1% ABV. Historically, this was the most dilute spirit that would sustain the combustion of gunpowder.

Ordinary distillation cannot produce alcohol of more than 95.6% ABV (191.2 proof) because at that point alcohol is an azeotrope with water. Alcohol of this high level of purity is commonly called neutral grain spirit.

Most yeasts cannot reproduce when the concentration of alcohol is higher than about 18%, so that is the practical limit for the strength of fermented beverages such as wine, beer, and sake. Strains of yeast have been developed that can reproduce in solutions of up to 25% ABV.


Alcohol is a moderately good solvent for many fatty substances and essential oils. This attribute facilitates the use of flavoring and coloring compounds in alcoholic beverages, especially distilled beverages. Flavors may be naturally present in the beverage’s base material. Beer and wine may be flavored before fermentation. Spirits may be flavored before, during, or after distillation.

Sometimes flavor is obtained by allowing the beverage to stand for months or years in oak barrels, usually American or French oak.

A few brands of spirits have fruit or herbs inserted into the bottle at the time of bottling.


In many countries, people drink alcoholic beverages at lunch and dinner.

At times and places of poor public sanitation (such as Medieval Europe), the consumption of alcoholic drinks was a way of avoiding water-borne diseases such as cholera. Small beer and faux wine, in particular, were used for this purpose. Although alcohol kills bacteria, its low concentration in these beverages would have had only a limited effect. More important was that the boiling of water (required for the brewing of beer) and the growth of yeast (required for fermentation of beer and wine) would tend to kill dangerous microorganisms. The alcohol content of these beverages allowed them to be stored for months or years in simple wood or clay containers without spoiling. For this reason, they were commonly kept aboard sailing vessels as an important (or even the sole) source of hydration for the crew, especially during the long voyages of the early modern period.

In cold climates, strong alcoholic beverages such as vodka are popularly seen as a way to “warm up” the body, possibly because alcohol is a quickly absorbed source of food energy and because it dilates peripheral blood vessels (peripherovascular dilation). This is a misconception because the perception of warmth is actually caused by the transfer of heat from the body’s core to its extremities, where it is quickly lost to the environment.


Alcohol has been used by people around the world, in the standard diet, for hygienic/medical reasons, for its relaxant and euphoric effects, for recreational purposes, for artistic inspiration, as aphrodisiacs, and for other reasons. Some drinks have been invested with symbolic or religious significance suggesting the mystical use of alcohol, e.g. by Greco-Roman religion in the ecstatic rituals of Dionysus (also called Bacchus), god of wine and revelry; in the Christian Eucharist; and on the Jewish Shabbat and festivals (particularly Passover).

Fermented beverages

Chemical analysis of traces absorbed and preserved in pottery jars from the Neolithic village of Jiahu, in Henan province, Northern China, have revealed that a mixed fermented beverage of rice, honey, and fruit was being produced as early as 9,000 years ago. This is approximately the same time that barley beer and grape wine were beginning to be made in the Middle East. Recipes have been found on clay tablets and art in Mesopotamia that show individuals using straws to drink beer from large vats and pots. The Hindu Ayurvedic texts describe both the beneficent uses of alcoholic beverages and the consequences of intoxication and alcoholic diseases. Most of the peoples in India and China, have continued, throughout, to ferment a portion of their crops and nourish themselves with the alcoholic product. However, devout adherents of Buddhism, which arose in India in the 5th and 6th centuries BC and spread over southern and eastern Asia, abstain to this day, as do devout Hindus and Sikhs. In Mesopotamia and Egypt, the birthplace of beer and wine, Islam is now the predominant religion, and it also prohibits the drinking and even the handling of alcoholic beverages.

Wine was consumed in Classical Greece at breakfast or at symposia, and in the 1st century BC it was part of the diet of most Roman citizens. However, both Greeks and Romans generally consumed diluted wine (with strengths varying from 1 part wine and 1 part water to 1 part wine and 4 parts water). The transformation of water into wine at the wedding at Cana is the first of the miracles attributed to Jesus in the New Testament, and His use of wine in the Last Supper led to it becoming an essential part of the Eucharist rite in most Christian traditions (see Christianity and alcohol).

In Europe during the Middle Ages, beer was consumed by the whole family, thanks to a triple fermentation process—the men had the strongest, then women, then children. A document of the times mentions nuns having an allowance of six pints of ale a day. Cider and pomace wine were also widely available, while grape wine was the prerogative of the higher classes.

By the time the Europeans reached the Americas in the 15th century, several native civilizations had developed alcoholic beverages. According to a post-Conquest Aztec document, consumption of the local "wine" (pulque) was generally restricted to religious ceremonies, but freely allowed to those over 70 years old. The natives of South America manufactured a beer-like product from cassava or maize (cauim, chicha), which had to be chewed before fermentation in order to turn the starch into sugars. This chewing technique was also used in ancient Japan to make sake from rice and other starchy crops.

The medicinal use of alcohol was mentioned in Sumerian and Egyptian texts dated from 2100 BC or earlier. The Hebrew Bible recommends giving alcoholic drinks to those who are dying or depressed, so that they can forget their misery (Proverbs 31:6-7).

Distilled beverages

The distillation of alcohol can be traced back to China, Central Asia and the Middle East. In particular, Muslim chemists were the first to produce fully purified distilled alcohol. It later spread to Europe in the mid-12th century, and by the early 14th century it had spread throughout the continent. It also spread eastward, mainly due to the Mongols, and began in China no later than the 14th century. Paracelsus gave alcohol its modern name, taking it from the Arabic word which means "finely divided", a reference to distillation.

Alcoholic beverages in American history

In the early 19th century, Americans had inherited a hearty drinking tradition. Many different types of alcoholic beverages were consumed. One reason for this heavy drinking was an overabundance of corn on the western frontier. This overabundance encouraged the widespread production of cheap whiskey. It was at this time that alcoholic beverages became an important part of the American diet. In the mid 1820s, Americans drank seven gallons of alcohol per capita annually.

During the 19th century, Americans drank an abundance of alcohol and drank it in two distinctive ways.

One way was to drink small amounts daily and regularly, usually at home or alone. The other way consisted of communal binges. Groups of people would gather in a public place for elections, court sessions, militia musters, holiday celebrations, or neighborly festivities. Participants would typically drink until they became intoxicated.

The raw materials of alcoholic beverages

The names of some beverages are determined by the source of the material fermented. In general, a beverage fermented from a starch-heavy source (grain or potato), in which the starch must first be broken down into sugars (by malting, for example), will be called a beer; if the mash is distilled, the end product is a spirit. Wine is made from fermented grapes.

Brandy and wine are made only from grapes. If an alcoholic beverage is made from another kind of fruit, it is distinguished as fruit brandy or fruit wine. The variety of fruit must be specified, as (for example) "cherry brandy" or "plum wine".

In the USA and Canada, cider often means unfermented apple juice (see the article on cider), while fermented cider is called hard cider. Unfermented cider is sometimes called sweet cider. In the UK, cider refers to the alcoholic drink; in Australia the term is ambiguous.

Beer is generally made from barley, but can sometimes contain a mix of other grains. Whisky (or whiskey) is sometimes made from a blend of different grains, especially Irish whiskey which may contain several different grains. The style of whisk(e)y (Scotch, rye, Bourbon, corn) generally determines the primary grain used, with additional grains usually added to the blend (most often barley, and sometimes oats). As far as American whiskey is concerned, Bourbon (corn), and rye whiskey, must be at least 51% of respective constituent at fermentation, while corn whiskey (as opposed to Bourbon) must be at least 81%—all by American law similar to the French A.O.C (Appellation d'Origine Controlée).

Two common distilled beverages are vodka and gin. Vodka can be distilled from any source of agricultural origin (grain and potatoes being the most common), but the main characteristic of vodka is that it is so thoroughly distilled as to exhibit less of the flavors derived from its source material. Some distillers and experts, however, may disagree, arguing that potato vodkas display a creamy mouthfeel, while rye vodkas will have heavy nuances of rye. Other vodkas may display citrus notes. Gin is a similar distillate which has been flavored by contact with herbs and other plant products—especially juniper berries, but also including angel root, licorice, cardamom, grains of paradise, Bulgarian rose petals, and many others.

Applejack is an example of a drink originally made by freeze distillation, which is easy to do in cold climates. Although both distillation and freeze distillation reduce the water content, they are not equivalent, because freeze distillation concentrates poisonous higher alcohols rather than reducing them like distillation.



Source Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage
barley beer, ale, barley wine Scotch whisky, Irish whiskey, sho-chu- (mugijo-chu-) (Japan)
rye rye beer, kvass rye whiskey, vodka (Poland), roggenkorn (Germany)
corn chicha, corn beer, tesguino Bourbon whiskey; and vodka (rarely)
sorghum burukutu (Nigeria), pito (Ghana), merisa (southern Sudan), bilibili (Chad, Central African Republic, Cameroon) maotai, gaoliang, certain other types of baijiu (China).
wheat wheat beer vodka, wheat whisky, weizenkorn (Germany)
rice Ruou gao (Vietnam), huangjiu, choujiu (China), sake (Japan), sonti (India), makgeolli (Korea), tuak (Borneo Island), thwon (Nepal) aila (Nepal),rice baijiu (China), sho-chu- (komejo-chu-) and awamori (Japan), soju (Korea)
millet millet beer (Sub-Saharan Africa), tongba (Nepal, Tibet)
buckwheat   sho-chu- (sobajo-chu-) (Japan)

Juice of fruits

Source Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage
juice of grapes, wine brandy, Cognac (France), Vermouth, Armagnac (France), Branntwein (Germany), pisco (Chile and Peru), Rakia (The Balkans, Turkey), singani (Bolivia), Arak (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan), törkölypálinka (Hungary)
juice of apples cider (U.S.: "hard cider"), apfelwein applejack (or apple brandy), calvados, cider
juice of pears perry, or pear cider; poire (France) Poire Williams, pear brandy, Eau-de-vie (France), pálinka (Hungary)
juice of plums plum wine slivovitz, tzuica, palinca, umeshu, pálinka
juice of pineapples tepache (Mexico)  
bananas or plantains Chuoi hot (Vietnam), urgwagwa (Uganda, Rwanda), mbege (with millet malt; Tanzania), kasikisi (with sorghum malt; Democratic Republic of the Congo)
gouqi gouqi jiu (China) gouqi jiu (China)
coconut arrack, lambanog (Sri Lanka, India, Philippines) Old arrack, Special, (Sri Lanka)
ginger with sugar, ginger with raisins ginger ale, ginger beer, ginger wine
Myrica rubra yangmei jiu (China) yangmei jiu (China)
pomace pomace wine Raki/Ouzo/Pastis/Sambuca (Turkey/Greece/France/Italy), tsipouro/tsikoudia (Greece), grappa (Italy), Trester (Germany), marc (France), zivania (Cyprus), aguardente (Portugal), tescovina( (Romania), Arak (Iraq)


Source Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage
juice of ginger root ginger beer (Botswana)  
potatoes or grain potato beer vodka: Potatoes are mostly used in Poland and Germany, otherwise grain or potatoes. A strong drink called akvavit, popular in Scandinavia, is made from potatoes or grain. In Ireland, poitín (or poteen) is a traditional liquor made from potatoes, which was illegal from 1661 to 1997.
sweet potato   sho-chu- (imojo-chu-) (Japan), soju (Korea)
cassava/manioc/yuca nihamanchi (South America), kasiri (Sub-Saharan Africa), chicha (Ecuador)
juice of sugarcane, or molasses basi, betsa-betsa (regional) rum (Caribbean), pinga or cachaça (Brasil), aguardiente, guaro
juice of agave pulque tequila, mezcal, raicilla


Source Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage
sap of palm coyol wine (Central America), tembo (Sub-Saharan Africa), toddy (Indian subcontinent)
honey mead, tej (Ethiopia) distilled mead (mead brandy or honey brandy)
milk kumis, kefir, blaand
sugar kilju (Finland) sho-chu- (kokuto- sho-chu-): made from brown sugar (Japan)


A cocktail is a mixed drink typically made with a distilled beverage (such as gin, vodka, whiskey, tequila, or rum) that is mixed with other ingredients. If beer is one of the ingredients, the drink is called a beer cocktail.

Cocktails contain one or more types of liqueur, juice, fruit, sauce, honey, milk or cream, spices, or other flavorings. Cocktails may vary in their ingredients from bartender to bartender, and from region to region. Two creations may have the same name but taste very different because of differences in how the drinks are prepared.

Cocktails with absinthe

Cocktails with brandy or cognac

Cocktails with cachaça

Cocktails with gin

Cocktails with rum

Cocktails with sake

Cocktails with tequila

Cocktails with vodka

Cocktails with whiskey/whisky or bourbon

Spelling: the Irish spell "whiskey" with an "e", but the Scottish spell "whisky" without the "e" (often simply referred to as "Scotch" outside of Scotland). Americans generally spell whiskey with an "e", but distinguish between Tennessee whiskey and Bourbon whiskey. Canadians generally spell "whisky" without the "e".

Cocktails with wine, sparkling wine, or port

The following drinks are not technically cocktails unless wine is secondary by volume to a distilled beverage, since wine is a fermented beverage not a distilled one.

Cocktails with a liqueur as the primary ingredient

Coffee liqueurs

Coffee-flavored drinks

Cream liqueurs

A liqueur containing cream, imparting a milkshake-like flavor

Crème liqueurs

Creme de almond

A creamy, almond-flavored liqueur

  • Mai Tai
  • Pink Squirrel
  • Scorpian
  • Zombie
Creme de Banane

A creamy, banana-flavored liqueur

  • Banshee
  • Chocolate Covered Banana
Crème de cacao - Brown

A brown-colored, chocolate-flavored liqueur

  • Brandy Alexander
  • Chocolate Covered Banana
Crème de cacao - White

A colorless chocolate-flavored liqueur

  • Banshee
  • Cricket
  • Golden Cadillac
  • Grasshopper
  • Locust
  • Pink Squirrel
Crème de menthe - Green

An intensely green, mint-flavored liqueur

  • Cricket
  • Grasshopper
  • Green Hornet
  • Orion Slave Girl
Crème de menthe - White

A colorless mint-flavored liqueur

  • Cricket
  • Locust
  • Stinger

Fruit liqueurs


One of several orange-flavored liqueurs, like Grand Marnier or Triple Sec

  • Cosmopolitan
  • Creamsicle
  • Golden Dream
  • Iguana Margarita
  • Kamikaze
  • Lemon Drop
  • Long Beach Iced Tea
  • Long Island Iced Tea
  • Margarita
  • Nuclear Iced Tea (aka Tokyo Tea)
  • Strawberry Margarita
  • Zombie
Curaçao - Blue

A clear, blue-colored, orange-flavored liqueur

  • Adios M.F.
  • Blue Eyes
  • Blue Margarita
  • Electric Martini
  • Pornstar

Other fruit flavors


A clear, bright-green, melon-flavored liqueur

  • Green Eyes
  • Iguana Margarita
  • Midori Sour
  • Melon Ball
  • Nuclear Iced Tea (aka Tokyo Tea)
  • Nuclear Martini
  • Pixie Stick

Licorice-flavored liqueurs


Other herbal liqueurs

Tazer Tequila, jagermeister, and lime juice

Nut-flavored liqueurs

Almond-flavored liqueurs

Whisky liqueurs

Other liqueurs

Cocktails with less common spirits

Bitters (as a primary ingredient)



Historical classes of cocktails

  • Bishop
  • Cobbler — a traditional long drink that is characterized by a glass 3/4 filled with crushed or shaved ice that is formed into a centered cone, topped by slices of fruit
  • Collins — a traditional long drink stirred with ice in the same glass it is served in and diluted with club soda, e.g. Tom Collins
  • Crusta — characterized by a sugar rim on the glass (e.g. Irish Coffee), brandy, maraschino liqueur, aromatic bitters, lemon juice, curacao, with an entire lemon rind as garnish
  • Daisy — a traditional long drink consisting of a base spirit, lemon juice, sugar, grenadine. The most common daisy cocktail is the Brandy Daisy. Other commonly known daisies are the Whiskey Daisy, Bourbon Daisy, Gin Daisy, Rum Daisy, Lemon Daisy (the non-alcoholic variant), Portuguese Daisy (port and brandy), Vodka Daisy, and Champagne Daisy.
  • Fix — a traditional long drink related to Cobblers, but mixed in a shaker and served over crushed ice
  • Fizz — a traditional long drink including acidic juices and club soda, e.g. Gin Fizz
  • Flip — a traditional half-long drink that is characterized by inclusion of sugar and egg yolk
  • Julep — base spirit, sugar, and mint over ice. The most common is the Mint Julep. Other variations include Gin Julep, Whiskey Julep, Pineapple Julep, and Georgia Mint Julep.
  • Negus
  • Punch
  • Sangaree
  • Sling — a traditional long drink prepared by stirring ingredients over ice in the glass and filling up with juice or club soda
  • Smash
  • Sour
  • Toddy
  • Shrub - a cocktail made with a fruit syrup, usually with a vinegar base.


City of Huntington Beach
—  City  —
Huntington Beach Pier
Nickname(s): Surf City USA
Location of Huntington Beach within Orange County, California.
Country United States United States
State California California
County Orange
Incorporated February 17, 1909
 - Type Council-Manager
 - City Council Cathy Green, Mayor
Keith Bohr
Joe Carchio
Gil Coerper
Don Hansen
Jill Hardy
Devin Dwyer
 - City Treasurer Shari L. Freidenrich, CCMT, CPFA, CPFIM
 - City Clerk Joan L. Flynn
 - Total 81.7 km2 (31.6 sq mi)
 - Land 68.3 km2 (26.4 sq mi)
 - Water 13.4 km2 (5.2 sq mi)
Elevation 12 m (39 ft)
Population (2000)
 - Total 189,594
 - Density 2,773.9/km2 (7,184.4/sq mi)
Time zone PST (UTC-8)
 - Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP codes 92605, 92615, 92646-92649
Area code(s) 714
FIPS code 06-36000
GNIS feature ID 1652724

Huntington Beach is a seaside city in Orange County in southern California, United States. According to the 2000 census, the city population was 189,594. It is bordered by the Pacific Ocean on the southwest, by Seal Beach on the northwest, by Costa Mesa on the east, by Newport Beach on the southeast, by Westminster on the north, and by Fountain Valley on the northeast.

It is known for its long 8.5-mile (13.7 km) beach, mild climate, and excellent surfing. The waves are a unique natural effect caused by edge-diffraction of ocean swells by the island of Catalina, and waves from distant hurricanes.


Huntington Beach, pre-incorporation, 1904.

The area was originally occupied by the Tongva people. European settlement can be traced to a Spanish soldier, Manuel Nieto, who in 1784 received a Spanish land grant of 300,000 acres (1,200 km2), Rancho Los Nietos, as a reward for his military service and to encourage settlement in Alta California. Nieto's western area was reduced in 1790 because of a dispute with the Mission San Gabriel, but he retained thousands of acres stretching from the hills north of Whittier, Fullerton and Brea, south to the Pacific Ocean, and from today's Los Angeles River on the west, to the Santa Ana River on the east.

The main thoroughfare of Huntington Beach, Beach Boulevard, was originally a cattle route for the main industry of the Rancho. Since its time as a parcel of the enormous Spanish land grant, Huntington Beach has undergone many incarnations. One time it was known Shell Beach, the town of Smeltzer, and then Gospel Swamp for the revival meetings that were held in the marshland where the community college Golden West College can currently be found. Later it became known as Fairview and then Pacific City as it developed into a tourist destination. In order to secure access to the Red Car lines that used to criss-cross Los Angeles and ended in Long Beach, Pacific City ceded enormous power to railroad magnate Henry Huntington, and thus became a city whose name has been written into corporate sponsorship, and like much of the history of Southern California, boosterism.

Huntington Beach incorporated on February 17, 1909 under its first mayor, Ed Manning. Its original developer was the Huntington Beach Company (formerly the West Coast Land and Water Company), a real-estate development firm owned by Henry Huntington. The Huntington Beach Company is still a major land-owner in the city, and still owns most of the local mineral rights.

An interesting hiccup in the settlement of the district occurred when an encyclopedia company gave away free parcels of land, with the purchase of a whole set for $126, in the Huntington Beach area that it had acquired cheaply. The lucky buyers got more than they had bargained for when oil was discovered in the area, and enormous development of the oil reserves followed. Though many of the old wells are empty, and the price of land for housing has pushed many of the rigs off the landscape, oil pumps can still be found to dot the city.

Huntington Beach was primarily agricultural in its early years with crops such as celery and sugar beets. Holly Sugar was a major employer with a large processing plant in the city that was later converted to an oil refinery.

The city's first high school, Huntington Beach High School was built in 1906. The school's team, the Oilers, is named after the city's original natural resource.

Meadowlark Airport, a small general aviation airport, existed in Huntington Beach from the 1950s until 1989.


Huntington Beach at Sunset

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 81.7 square kilometres (31.5 sq mi). 68.3 km2 (26.4 sq mi) of it is land and 13.4 km2 (5.2 sq mi) of it (16.38%) is water.

The entire city of Huntington Beach lies in area codes 657 and 714, except for small parts of Huntington Harbour (along with Sunset Beach, the unincorporated community adjacent to Huntington Harbour), which is in the 562 Area Code.


Huntington Beach has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csb). The climate is generally sunny, dry and cool, although evenings can be excessively damp. In the morning and evening, there are often strong breezes, 15 mph (24 km/h). Ocean water temperatures average 55 °F (13 °C) to 65 °F (18 °C). In the summer, temperatures rarely exceed 85 °F (29 °C). In the winter, temperatures rarely fall below 40 °F (4 °C), even on clear nights. There are about 14 inches (360 mm) of rain, almost all in mid-winter. Frost occurs only rarely on the coldest winter nights. The area is annually affected by a marine layer caused by the cool air of the Pacific Ocean meeting the warm air over the land. This results in overcast and foggy conditions in May and June.

Weather data for Huntington Beach
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 64
Average low °F (°C) 48
Precipitation inches (mm) 2.60
Source: Weather Channel 2009-03-29

Natural resources

Bolsa Chica Wildlife Refuge

Construction of any kind on the beach is prohibited without a vote of the people, allowing Huntington Beach to retain its natural tie to the ocean rather than having the view obscured by residential and commercial developments.

Between Downtown Huntington Beach and Huntington Harbour lies a large marshy wetland, much of which is protected within the Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve. A $110 million restoration of the wetlands was completed in 2006. The Reserve is popular with bird watchers and photographers.

South of Downtown, the Talbert and Magnolia Marshes lie on a strip of undeveloped land parallel to Huntington State Beach and are in the process of restoration, as well.

The northern and southern beaches (Bolsa Chica State Beach and Huntington State Beach, respectively) are state parks. Only the central beach (Huntington City Beach) is maintained by the city. Camping and RVs are permitted here, and popular campsites for the Fourth of July and the Surfing Championships must be reserved many months in advance. Bolsa Chica State Beach is actually a sand bar fronting the Bolsa Bay and Bolsa Chica State Ecological Reserve.

Huntington Harbour from the air

The Orange County run Sunset Marina Park next to Huntington Harbour is part of Anaheim Bay. It is suitable for light craft, and includes a marina, launching ramp, basic services, a picnic area and a few restaurants. The park is in Seal Beach, but is only reachable from Huntington Harbour. The Sunset/Huntington Harbour area is patrolled by the Orange County Sheriff's Harbor Patrol.

The harbor entrance for Anaheim Bay is sometimes restricted by the United States Navy, which loads ships with munitions at the Seal Beach Naval Weapons Station to the north of the main channel.


Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1910 815
1920 1,687 107.0%
1930 3,690 118.7%
1940 3,738 1.3%
1950 5,237 40.1%
1960 11,492 119.4%
1970 115,960 909.0%
1980 170,505 47.0%
1990 181,519 6.5%
2000 189,594 4.4%

As of the census of 2000, there were 189,594 people, 73,657 households, and 47,729 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,773.9/km² (7,183.6/mi²). There were 75,662 housing units at an average density of 1,107.0/km² (2,866.8/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 79.22% White, 0.81% Black or African American, 0.65% Native American, 9.34% Asian, 0.24% Pacific Islander, 5.81% from other races, and 3.94% from two or more races. 14.66% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 73,657 households out of which 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.7% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.2% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.08.

In the city the population was spread out with 22.2% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 34.9% from 25 to 44, 24.0% from 45 to 64, and 10.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 100.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.6 males.

According to a 2007 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $81,112, and the median income for a family was $101,023. Adult males had a median income of $52,018 versus $38,046 for adult females. The per capita income for the city was $36,964. About 4.3% of families and 6.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.2% of those under age 18 and 4.4% of those age 65 or over.

The 2009 population estimated by the California Department of Finance was 202,480.

The unemployment rate in Huntington Beach is one of the lowest among large (over 100,000) cities in the United States at 1.9%.


According to Huntington Beach's 2008 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are:

# Employer # of Employees
1 Boeing 4,352
2 Quiksilver 1,337
3 Cambro Manufacturing 909
4 Verizon 723
5 Hyatt Regency Huntington Beach 670
6 C & D Aerospace 600
7 Huntington Beach Hospital 503
8 Fisher & Paykel 441
9 Rainbow Disposal 408
10 Home Depot (including Expo) 386

Huntington Beach sits above a large natural fault structure containing oil. Although the oil is mostly depleted, extraction continues at a slow rate, and still provides significant local income. There are only two off-shore extraction facilities left, however, and the day is not far off when oil production in the city will cease and tourism will replace it as the primary revenue source for resident industry.

The city is discussing closing off Main Street to cars from PCH through the retail shopping and restaurant areas, making it a pedestrian zone only. Other shopping centers include Bella Terra, built on the former Huntington Center site, and Old World Village, a German-themed center.

Huntington Beach has an off-shore oil terminus for the tankers that support the Alaska Pipeline. The terminus pipes run inland to a refinery in Santa Fe Springs. Huntington Beach also has the Gothard-Talbert terminus for the Orange County portion of the pipeline running from the Chevron El Segundo refinery.

Several hotels have been constructed on the inland side of Pacific Coast Highway (State Route 1) within view of the beach, just southeast of the pier.

Huntington Beach contains a major installation of Boeing, formerly McDonnell-Douglas. A number of installations on the Boeing campus were originally constructed to service the Apollo Program, most notably the production of the S-IVB upper stage for the Saturn IB and Saturn V rockets, and some nearby telephone poles are still marked "Apollo Dedicated Mission Control Line."

Huntington Beach contains the administrative headquarters of Sea Launch, a commercial space vehicle launch enterprise whose largest stockholder is Boeing.

Huntington Beach contains a small industrial district in its northwest corner, near the borders with Westminster and Seal Beach.

Surf City USA trademarks

While Huntington Beach retains its 15-year trademark of Surf City Huntington Beach, the Huntington Beach Conference and Visitors Bureau filed four applications to register the Surf City USA trademark in November 2004. The idea was to market the city by creating an authentic brand based on Southern California's beach culture and active outdoor lifestyle while at the same time creating a family of product licensees who operate like a franchise family producing a revenue stream that could also be dedicated to promoting the brand and city. A ruling by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office released on May 12, 2006 awarded three trademark registrations to the Bureau; nine additional trademark registrations have been granted since this time and ten other Surf City USA trademarks are now under consideration. One of the first products the Bureau developed to promote its brand was the Surf City USA Beach Cruiser by Felt Bicycles in 2006. The product has sold out every year in markets worldwide and created demand for a second rental bicycle model that will be marketed to resort locations across the globe starting in 2009. The Bureau now has dozens of other licensed products on the market from Surf City USA soft drinks to clothing to glassware. As of April 2008, the Bureau had more than 20 licensing partners with over 50 different products being prepared to enter the market over the next 18 months. Four of the Bureau's registrations of the trademark are now on the principal register and the remaining ten trademark applications are expected to follow. The Bureau is actively considering registration of the Surf City USA trademark in several different countries and anticipates a growing market for its branded products overseas in coming years.

An ongoing dispute between Huntington Beach and Santa Cruz, California over the trademark garnered negative national publicity in 2007 when a law firm representing Huntington Beach sent a cease-and-desist letter to a Santa Cruz t-shirt vendor. A settlement was reached in January, 2008, which allows the Huntington Beach Conference and Visitors Bureau to retain the trademark.


Huntington Beach CA USA.jpg

The downtown district includes an active art center, a colorful shopping district, and the International Surfing Museum. This district was also once the home of the famous restaurant and music club "The Golden Bear." In the late 1960s and 1970s it hosted many famous bands and acts. The Huntington Beach Pier stretches from Main Street into the Pacific Ocean. At the end of the pier is a Ruby's Diner. The Surf Theatre, which was located one block north of the pier, gained fame in the 1960s and 1970s for showing independent surf films such as The Endless Summer and Five Summer Stories. The Surf Theatre was owned and operated by Hugh Larry Thomas from 1961 until it was demolished in 1989. A newer version of The Surf Theatre is now closed, but the International Surf Museum has preserved its memory with a permanent exhibit featuring vintage seats and screening of surfing movies once shown at a Huntington Beach theater.

Arts and culture

Special events

Many of the events at Huntington Beach are focused around the beach during the summer. The U.S. Open of Surfing and Beach Games are featured on the south side of the pier. Huntington Beach is a stop on the AVP beach volleyball tour. A biathlon (swim/run) hosted by the Bolsa Chica & Huntington State Beach Lifeguards takes place in July, early at dawn. The race begins at the Santa Ana River Jetties and ends at Warner Avenue, Bolsa Chica State Beach. Huntington Beach Junior Lifeguard day camps are held which teaches preadolescents and adolescents ocean swimming, running, and first-aid medical knowledge.

In addition to the beach-focused events, the Fourth of July parade has been held since 1904. The SoCal Independent Film Festival takes place every September.

During the winter the annual Cruise of Lights Boat Tour is held in the Huntington Harbour neighborhood. This is a parade of colorful lighted boats as well as boat tours to view the decorated homes. The annual Kite Festival is held just north of the pier in late February.

Huntington Beach hosts car shows such as the Beachcruiser Meet and a Concours d'Elegance. The Beachcruiser Meet is held in March, attracting over 250 classic cars displayed along Main Street and the Pier parking lot. A Concours d'Elegance is held at Central Park in June and benefits the public library.

Surf City Nights is held during the entire year. The community-spirited event features a farmer's market, unique entertainment, food, kiddie rides and a carnival atmosphere, each Tuesday evening. Surf City Nights is presented by the Huntington Beach Downtown Business Improvement District (HBDBID) and the City of Huntington Beach. The event takes place in the first three blocks of Main Street from Pacific Coast Highway to Orange Avenue.


Surfers abound near Huntington City Pier
Huntington Beach during the day.
Bolsa Chica Surf

Huntington Beach is the site of the world surfing championships, held in the summer every year. The city is often referred to as "Surf City" because of this high profile event, its history and culture of surfing. It is often called the "Surfing Capital of the World", not for the height of the waves, but rather for the consistent quality of surf. Gordon Duane established the city's first surf shop, Gordie's Surfboards, in 1955.

Surf and beaches

Apart from sponsored surf events, Huntington Beach has some of the best surf breaks in the State of California and that of the United States. Huntington Beach has four different facing beaches: Northwest, West, Southwest, and South. Northwest consists of Bolsa Chica State Beach with a length of 3.3 miles (5.3 km), the West consist of "The Cliffs" or "Dog Beach", Southwest is considered everything north of the pier which is operated by the City of Huntington Beach. South consists in everything south of the pier which primarily focuses on Huntington State Beach (2.2 Miles), which almost faces true South.

Bolsa Chica State Beach is operated by the State of California, Dept. Parks & Recreation, and the Bolsa Chica State Beach Lifeguards. The beach is very narrow and the sand is very coarse. Bolsa Chica tends to have better surf with NW/W swells during the winter season. During the summer months the beach picks up south/southwest swells at a very steep angle. Due to the bottom of the beach, surf at Bolsa Chica tends to be slowed down and refined to soft shoulders. Longboards are the best option for surfing in the Bolsa Chica area.

"The Cliffs" or "Dog Beach" is also another popular surf spot. This segment of Huntington Beach obtains these names because dogs are allowed around the cliff area. Beach is very restricted and often is submerged with high tides. Surf at this location tends to be even bigger than Bolsa Chica during the winter and often better. During the summer most of the South/Southwest swells slide right by and often break poorly. The best option is to take out a longboard, but shortboards will do at times. Dolphins have also been sighted in this area.

Just north and south of the Huntington Beach Pier are some well defined sandbars that shift throughout the year with the different swells. Southside of the Pier is often a popular destination during the summer for good surf, but the Northside can be just as well during the winter. Around the Pier it all depends on the swell and the sandbars. Shortboard is your best option for surfing around the Pier.

South Huntington Beach, also known as Huntington State Beach, is where all the south swells impact the coastline. Huntington State Beach is operated by the State of California, Department of Parks & Recreation, and Huntington State Beach Lifeguards. This beach is very wide with plenty of sand. Sandbars dramatically shift during the spring, summer and fall seasons, thus creating excellent surf conditions with a combination South/West/Northwest swell. Due to the Santa Ana River jetties located at the southern most end of the beach, large sandbars extend across and upcoast, forcing swells to break extremely fast and hollow. Best seasons for surfing at this beach is the summer and fall. The best option for surfing in this area is a shortboard.

Huntington Beach is also a popular destination for kite surfing, and this sport can be viewed on the beach northwest of the pier.

Huntington Beach is the host city of the National Professional Paintball League Super 7 Paintball Championships. The NPPL holds its first event of the year traditionally between the dates of March 23 through March 26.

Huntington Beach also hosts the annual Surf City USA Marathon and Half-Marathon, which is usually held on the first Sunday of February.

Parks and recreation

Huntington Beach has a very large Central Park, located between Gothard and Edwards Streets to the east and west, and Slater and Ellis Avenues to the north and south. The park is vegetated with xeric (low water use) plants, and inhabited by native wildlife. Thick forests encircling the park are supplemented with Australian trees, particularly eucalyptus, a high water use plant.

Huntington Central Park

The Huntington Beach Public Library is located in Central Park in a notable building designed by Richard Neutra and Dion Neutra. It houses almost a half-million volumes, as well as a theater, gift shop and fountains. The library was founded as a Carnegie library in 1914, and has been continuously supported by the city and local activists, with new buildings and active branches at Banning, Oak View, Main Street, and Graham. The library has significant local historical materials and has a special genealogical reference collection. It is independent of the state and county library systems.

The park is also home of Huntington Central Park Equestrian Center, a top class boarding facility that also offers horse rentals to the public, with guided trail rides through the park. There is also a "mud park" available for kids. The world's second oldest disc golf course is available in the park, as are two small dining areas, a sports complex for adult use, and the Shipley Nature Center.

The Bolsa Chica Wetlands, which are diminishing rapidly due to development, contains numerous trails and scenic routes. The wetlands themselves have recently been connected with the ocean again, in effort to maintain its previous, unaltered conditions.


Local Government

According to the city’s most recent Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the city’s various funds had $295.6 million in Revenues, $287.7 million in expenditures, $1,046.6 million in total assets, $202.8 million in total liabilities, and $87.1 million in cash and investments.

The structure of the management and coordination of city services is:

City Department Director
City Manager Fred Wilson
Deputy City Administrator Paul Emery
Deputy City Administrator Robert Hall
Community Relations Officer Laurie E. Payne
Director of Library Services Stephanie Beverage
Director of Human Resources Michele Carr
Director of Building and Safety Ross D. Cranmer
Director of Community Services Jim B. Engle
Director of Planning Scott Hess
Director of Public Works Travis Hopkins
Director of Information Services Jack Marshall
Fire Chief Duane S. Olson
Police Chief Kenneth W. Small
Director of Economic Development Stanley Smalewitz
Director of Finance Dan T. Vilella


In the state legislature Huntington Beach is located in the 35th Senate District, represented by Republican Tom Harman, and in the 67th Assembly District, represented by Republican Jim Silva. Federally, Huntington Beach is located in California's 46th congressional district, which has a Cook PVI of R +6 and is represented by Republican Dana Rohrabacher.


Huntington Beach is the home of Golden West College, which offers two-year associates of arts degrees and transfer programs to four year universities.

Huntington Beach is in the Huntington Beach Union High School District, which includes Edison High School, Huntington Beach High School, Marina High School, and Ocean View High School in the city of Huntington Beach, Fountain Valley High School in the city of Fountain Valley, and Westminster High School in the city of Westminster.

The district also has an alternative school, Valley Vista High School, and an independent study school, Coast High School.

Huntington Beach High School, which is the district's flagship school, celebrated its 100 year anniversary in 2006.

The city has two elementary school districts: Huntington Beach City with 9 schools and Ocean View with 15. A small part of the city is served by the Fountain Valley School District.


Huntington Beach was selected for the 24th season of MTV's Real World Series.

The city was featured in the TruTV series Ocean Force: Huntington Beach. Also, the city is mentioned in the Beach Boys song Surfin' Safari and in Surfer Joe by The Surfaris.

A live camera is set up at the Huntington Beach Pier and shown on screens at the California-themed Hollister apparel stores.

The public television station KOCE-TV operates from the Golden West College campus, in conjunction with the Golden West College Media Arts program.

Two weekly newspapers cover Huntington Beach: The Huntington Beach Independent and The Wave Section of The Orange County Register.

Ashlee Simpson's music video for La La was filmed in Huntington Beach.

Notable natives and residents


Sandy West, the drummer for the 70s band The Runaways, grew up and went to school in Huntington Beach. She attended Edison High School.




Huntington Beach Police Department MD520N helicopter

Fire protection in Huntington Beach is provided by the Huntington Beach Fire Department. Law enforcement is provided by the Huntington Beach Police Department. Huntington Beach Marine Safety Officers and its seasonal lifeguards are recognized as some of the best in the world with a top notch safety record. It has an active Community Emergency Response Team training program, that trains citizens as Disaster Service Workers certified by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) as a part of a free program run by the fire department's Office of Emergency Services.

Emergency services are also provided at State Beach locations. Peace Officers and lifeguards can be found at Bolsa Chica and Huntington State Beach. Such services consist of: aquatic rescues, boat rescues, first aid and law enforcement. All services are provided by the State of California, Dept. Parks & Recreation.

In 1926, the Santa Ana River dam failed, and flash-flooded its entire delta. The southern oceanic terminus of this delta is now a settled area of Huntington Beach. The distant dam is still functional, but silting up, which is expected to reduce its storage volume, and therefore its effectiveness at flood-prevention. The flood and dam-endangered areas are protected by a levee, but lenders require expensive flood insurance in the delta. There have been serious discussions to eliminate the need for flood insurance and this requirement has already been waived in some areas and may one day no longer be considered a credible threat.

Since it is a seaside city, Huntington Beach has had tsunami warnings, storm surge (its pier has been rebuilt three times), sewage spills, tornadoes and waterspouts. The cold offshore current prevents hurricanes. The Pier that was rebuilt in the 1990s was engineered to withstand severe storms or earthquakes.

Large fractions of the settled delta are in earthquake liquefaction zones above known active faults. Most of the local faults are named after city streets.

Many residents (and even city hall) live within sight and sound of active oil extraction and drilling operations. These occasionally spew oil, causing expensive clean-ups. Large parts of the developed land have been contaminated by heavy metals from the water separated from oil.

The local oil has such extreme mercury contamination that metallic mercury is regularly drained from oil pipelines and equipment. Oil operations increase when the price of oil rises. Some oil fields have been approved for development. The worst-polluted areas have been reclaimed as parks. At least one Superfund site, too contaminated to be a park, is at the junction of Magnolia and Hamilton streets, near Edison High School.

Sister cities

Huntington Beach has the following sister city relationships, according to the Huntington Beach Sister City Association:

Huntington Beach also has youth exchange programs with both cities, sending four teenagers on an exchange student basis for two weeks in order to gather different cultural experiences.



City of Fountain Valley, California
—  City  —

Motto: "A Nice Place to Live"
Location of Fountain Valley within Orange County, California.
Country United States
State California
County Orange
 - Mayor John Edward Collins
 - Total 8.9 sq mi (23.1 km2)
 - Land 8.9 sq mi (23.1 km2)
 - Water 0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)
Elevation 33 ft (10 m)
Population (2009)
 - Total 58,309
 - Density 7,406.1/sq mi (2,859.5/km2)
Time zone PST (UTC-8)
 - Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP codes 92708, 92728
Area code(s) 714
FIPS code 06-25380
GNIS feature ID 1652712

Fountain Valley is a city in Orange County, California, United States. The population was 58,309 according to the 2009 estimate by the California Department of Finance. A classic bedroom community, Fountain Valley is a middle-class residential area.


The area encompassing Fountain Valley was originally inhabited by the Tongva people. European settlement of the area began when Manuel Nieto was granted the land for Rancho Los Nietos, which encompassed over 300,000 acres (1,200 km2), including present-day Fountain Valley. Control of the land was subsequently transferred to Mexico upon independence from Spain, and then to the United States as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

The city was incorporated in 1957, before which it was known as Talbert (also as Gospel Swamps by residents). The name of Fountain Valley refers to the very high water table in the area at the time the name was chosen, and the many corresponding artesian wells in the area. Early settlers constructed drainage canals to make the land usable for agriculture, which remained the dominant use of land until the 1960s, when construction of large housing tracts accelerated.


Fountain Valley is located at (33.708618, -117.956295). The elevation of the city is approximately twenty feet above sea level, slightly lower than surrounding areas. This is especially noticeable in the southwest area of the city, where several streets have a steep grade as they cross into Huntington Beach.

The city is located southwest and northeast of the San Diego Freeway (Interstate 405), which diagonally bisects the city, and is surrounded by Huntington Beach on the south and west, Westminster and Garden Grove on the north, Santa Ana on the northeast, and Costa Mesa on the southeast. Its eastern border is the Santa Ana River.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 23.1 km2 (8.9 sq mi) 0.11% of which is water.


According to the census of 2009, there were 58,309 people, 18,162 households, and 14,220 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,382.4/km² (6,167.8/mi²). There were 18,473 housing units at an average density of 800.5/km² (2,072.4/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 64.02% White, 1.11% Black or African American, 0.46% American Indian or Alaskan Native, 25.76% Asian, 0.40% Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, 3.95% from other races, and 4.30% from two or more races. 10.68% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 18,162 households out of which 34.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.4% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 21.7% were non-families. 16.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.00 and the average family size was 3.35. More than 1/3 of all the housing units in the city are those other than single-family homes, such as condominiums or apartments.

In the city the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 7.9% from 18 to 24, 30.1% from 25 to 44, 27.2% from 45 to 64, and 11.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 95.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $78,729, and the median income for a family was $90,335. Males had a median income of $60,399 versus $43,089 for females. The per capita income for the city was $48,521. About 1.6% of families and 2.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.2% of those under age 18 and 3.0% of those age 65 or over.


In the state legislature Fountain Valley is located in the 35th Senate District, represented by Republican Tom Harman, and in the 68th Assembly District, represented by Republican Van Tran. Federally, Fountain Valley is located in California's 46th congressional district, which has a Cook PVI of R +6 and is represented by Republican Dana Rohrabacher.

Community amenities

Fountain Valley is home to Mile Square Regional Park, a 640 acres (2.6 km2) park containing two lakes, three 18-hole golf courses, playing fields, picnic shelters, and a 20-acre (81,000 m2) urban nature area planted with California native plants, a 55-acre (220,000 m2) recreation center with tennis courts, basketball courts, racquetball courts, a gymnasium, and the Kingston Boys & Girls Club; also a community center and a new senior center that opened in June, 2005. A major redevelopment of the recreation center and city-administered sports fields was completed in early 2009.

Fire protection and emergency medical services are provided by two stations of the Fountain Valley Fire Department. Law enforcement is provided by the Fountain Valley Police Department. Ambulance service is provided by Care Ambulance Service.

The Orange County Sanitation District's primary plant is located in Fountain Valley next to the Santa Ana River. The agency is the third-largest sanitation district in the western United States. This location is also home to the agency's administrative offices, as well as the offices of the Municipal Water District of Orange County, a member of the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California

Fountain Valley has two fully accredited major medical centers: the Fountain Valley Regional Hospital with 400 beds available, and Orange Coast Memorial Hospital with 230 beds and a medical clinic. Orange Coast Memorial recently announced plans for a six-story outpatient center to be added. The project was initially met by some opposition due to its height and location next to residences, but was eventually approved unanimously by the city council.

The city also has 18 churches, one Reform synagogue, a mosque and a public library.

Fountain Valley has its own newspaper, the Fountain Valley View, operated by the Orange County Register.


There are three high schools, three middle schools, nine elementary schools, one K-12 school, and two K-8 schools. However, some students who live in the city of Fountain Valley actually attend schools in other cities.

Fountain Valley is also home to Coastline Community College and a campus of the University of Phoenix. Community colleges in the area include Orange Coast College or Golden West College, located nearby in the cities of Costa Mesa and Huntington Beach, respectively.

High schools in Huntington Beach Union High School District

High schools in Garden Grove Unified School District

Middle schools in Fountain Valley School District

Middle schools in Ocean View Middle School District

  • Vista View Middle School

Elementary schools in Garden Grove Unified School District

  • Allen Elementary School
  • Monroe Elementary School
  • Northcutt Elementary School

Elementary schools in Fountain Valley School District

  • Courreges Elementary School
  • Cox Elementary School
  • Gisler Elementary School
  • Moiola Elementary School (K-8)
  • Plavan Elementary School
  • Tamura Elementary School
  • Newland Elementary School

Private schools

  • Carden School of Fountain Valley (K-8)
  • First Southern Baptist Christian School (K-12)


As a suburban city, most of Fountain Valley's residents commute to work in other urban centers. However in recent years, the city has seen an increase in commercial jobs in the city, with the growth of a commercial center near the Santa Ana River known as the "Southpark" district.

Although the economy of the area was once based mainly on agriculture, the remaining production consists of several fields of strawberries or other small crops, which are gradually being replaced by new office development.

Fountain Valley is home to the national headquarters of Hyundai Motor Company and D-Link Corporation, the global headquarters of memory chip manufacturer Kingston Technologies, and the corporate headquarters of Surefire, LLC, maker of military and commercial flashlights. The Southpark commercial area is also home to offices for companies such as D-Link, Starbucks, Satura and the Orange County Register. There are also a limited number of light industrial companies in this area. In addition, Fountain Valley is the location for Noritz, a tankless water heater manufacturer.

The increasing commercial growth can be evidenced by the frequent rush-hour traffic bottlenecks on the San Diego (405) Freeway through Fountain Valley.


In addition to the San Diego Freeway, which bisects the city, Fountain Valley is served by several bus lines operated by the Orange County Transportation Authority. Bus routes 33, 35, 37, 70, 72, 74, and 172 cover the city's major streets.

Most of the major roads are equipped with bicycle lanes, especially around Mile Square Park, which offers wide bike paths along the major streets that mark its boundary. Dedicated bike paths along the Santa Ana River run from the city of Corona to the Pacific Ocean.



Westminster, California
—  City  —
Motto: "The City of Progress Built on Pride."
Location of Westminster within Orange County, California.
Country United States
State California
County Orange
 - City Council Mayor Margie L. Rice
Tri Ta
Frank G. Fry
Andy Quach
Truong Diep
City Manager

Donald D. Lamm
City Treasurer / Finance Director

Paul Espinoza
 - Total 10.1 sq mi (26.2 km2)
 - Land 10.1 sq mi (26.2 km2)
 - Water 0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)
Elevation 39 ft (12 m)
Population (2000)
 - Total 88,207
 - Density 8,724.6/sq mi (3,368.6/km2)
Time zone PST (UTC-8)
 - Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP codes 92683-92685
Area code(s) 714
FIPS code 06-84550
GNIS feature ID 1652811

Westminster is a city in Orange County, California, United States. It was founded in 1870 by Rev. Lemuel Webber as a Presbyterian temperance colony. Its name is taken from the Westminster Assembly of 1643, which laid out the basic tenets of the Presbyterian faith. For several years of its early history, its farmers refused to grow grapes because they associated grapes with alcohol.

Westminster was incorporated in 1957, at which time it had 10,755 residents. Originally, the city was named Tri-City because it was the amalgamation of three cities: Westminster, Barber City, and Midway City. Midway City ultimately turned down incorporation, leaving Barber City to be absorbed into the newly incorporated Westminster. The former Barber City was located in the western portion of the current City of Westminster.

Westminster is landlocked and bordered by Seal Beach on the west, by Garden Grove on the north and east, and by Huntington Beach and Fountain Valley on the south.

Westminster surrounds the unincorporated area of Midway City, except for a small portion where Midway City meets Huntington Beach to the south.

A large number of Vietnamese refugees came to the city in the 1970s, settling largely in an area now officially named Little Saigon. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 88,207. Westminster won the All-America City Award in 1996.


As of the census of 2000, there were 88,207 people, 26,406 households, and 20,411 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,368.6/km² (8,724.2/mi²). There were 26,940 housing units at an average density of 1,028.8/km² (2,664.5/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 45.79% White, 0.99% African American, 0.61% Native American, 38.13% Asian, 0.46% Pacific Islander, 10.19% from other races, and 3.84% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21.70% of the population.

There were 26,406 households out of which 37.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.4% were married couples living together, 12.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.7% were non-families. 16.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.32 and the average family size was 3.71.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 32.6% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, and 11.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 99.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $49,450, and the median income for a family was $54,399. Males had a median income of $37,157 versus $28,392 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,218. About 10.7% of families and 13.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.0% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over.


Westminster is located at (33.752418, -117.993938). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 26.2 km² (10.1 mi²), all land.


In the state legislature Westminster is located in the 34th, Senate District, represented by Democrat Lou Correa and Republican Tom Harman respectively, and in the 67th and 68th Assembly District, represented by Republicans Jim Silva and Van Tran respectively. Federally, Westminster is located in California's 40th and 46th congressional districts, which have Cook PVIs of R +8 and R +6 respectively and are represented by Republicans Ed Royce and Dana Rohrabacher respectively.


Four different school districts have boundaries that overlap parts or more of the City of Westminster:

Notable natives and residents


  • A memorial and final resting place for the victims of the Pan Am plane involved in the Tenerife Disaster March 27 1977 is located in Westminster.
  • The Vietnam War Memorial is located Sid Goldstein Freedom Park, next to the Westminster Civic Center. The project was initiated by Westminster City Councilman Frank G. Fry in 1997 and completed in 2003.


The city's major shopping mall is Westminster Mall, which contains more than 180 stores.



City of Newport Beach, California
—  City  —

Location of Newport Beach within Orange County, California.
Country United States
State California
County Orange
Incorporated September 1, 1906
 - Type Mayor-Council
 - Mayor Edward D. Selich
 - Governing body City of Newport Beach City Council
 - Total 39.8 sq mi (103.2 km2)
 - Land 14.8 sq mi (38.3 km2)
 - Water 25.1 sq mi (64.9 km2)
Elevation 10 ft (3 m)
Population (January 1, 2009)
 - Total 86,252
 - Density 5,832.7/sq mi (2,252/km2)
Time zone PST (UTC-8)
 - Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP codes 92657-92663
Area code(s) 949
FIPS code 06-51182
GNIS feature ID 1661104
Website City of Newport Beach
Misc. Information
City tree Coral tree
City flower Bougainvillea

Newport Beach, incorporated in 1906, is a city in Orange County, California, United States 10 miles (16 km) south of downtown Santa Ana. As of January 1, 2009, the population was 86,252. The current OMB metropolitan designation for Newport Beach lies within the Santa Ana-Anaheim-Irvine area. The city is currently one of the wealthiest communities in California and consistently places high in United States rankings.


In 1870 a steamer named "The Vaquero" made its first trip to a marshy lagoon for trading. Ranch owners in the Lower Bay decided from then on that the area should be called "Newport."

In 1905 city development increased when Pacific Electric Railroad established a southern terminus in Newport connecting the beach with downtown Los Angeles. In 1906 with a population of 206 citizens, the scattered settlements were incorporated as the City of Newport Beach.

Settlements filled in on the Peninsula, West Newport, Balboa Island and Lido Isle. In 1923 Corona del Mar was annexed and in 2002 Newport Coast was annexed.



Newport Beach extends in elevation from sea level to the 1161 ft (354 m.) summit of Signal Peak in the San Joaquin Hills, but the official elevation is 25 feet (8 m) above sea level at a location of (33.616671, -117.897604).

The city is bordered to the west by Huntington Beach at the Santa Ana River, on the north side by Costa Mesa, John Wayne Airport, and Irvine (including UC Irvine), and on the east side by Crystal Cove State Park.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 103.2 km² (39.8 mi²). 38.3 km² (14.8 mi²) of it is land and 64.9 km² (25.1 mi²) of it (62.91%) is water.

Areas of Newport Beach include Corona del Mar, Balboa Island, Newport Coast, San Joaquin Hills, and Balboa Peninsula (also known as Balboa).


The Upper Newport Bay was carved out by the prehistoric flow of the Santa Ana River. It feeds the delta that is the Back Bay, and eventually joins Lower Newport Bay, commonly referred to as Newport Harbor. The Lower Bay includes Balboa Island, Bay Island, Harbor Island, Lido Isle and Linda Isle.


Newport Beach has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csb). Like many coastal cities in Orange and Los Angeles Counties, Newport Beach exhibits weak temperature variation, both diurnally and seasonally, compared to inland cities even a few miles from the ocean. The Pacific Ocean greatly moderates Newport Beach's climate by warming winter temperatures and cooling summer temperatures.

Weather data for Newport Beach
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 64
Average low °F (°C) 48
Precipitation inches (mm) 2.60
Source: Weather Channel March 29, 2009


Balboa Pavilion on Main Street
Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1910 445
1920 895 101.1%
1930 2,203 146.1%
1940 4,438 101.5%
1950 12,120 173.1%
1960 26,564 119.2%
1970 49,582 86.7%
1980 62,556 26.2%
1990 66,643 6.5%
2000 70,032 5.1%

As of the census of 2000, there were 70,032 people, 33,071 households, and 16,965 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,829.5/km² (4,738.8/mi²). There were 37,288 housing units at an average density of 974.1/km² (2,523.1/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 92.22% White, 0.53% African American, 0.26% Native American, 4.00% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 1.13% from other races, and 1.74% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.71% of the population.

There were 33,071 households out of which 18.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.5% were married couples living together, 6.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 48.7% were non-families. 35.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.09 and the average family size was 2.71.

In the city the population was spread out with 15.7% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 33.0% from 25 to 44, 27.2% from 45 to 64, and 17.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females there were 97.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.6 males.

According to a 2008 US Census estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $110,511, while the median family income was $162,976. Males had a median income of $73,425 versus $45,409 for females. The per capita income for the city was $63,015. About 2.1% of families and 4.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.0% of those under age 18 and 3.5% of those age 65 or over.

Housing prices in Newport Beach ranked eighth highest in the United States in a 2009 survey.


As of October 2008, there were 35,870 registered Republicans and 13,850 registered Democrats.

In the state legislature Newport Beach is located in the 35th Senate District, represented by Republican Tom Harman, and in the 68th and 70th Assembly District, represented by Republicans Van Tran and Chuck DeVore respectively. Federally, Newport Beach is located in California's 48th congressional district, which has a Cook PVI of R +8 and is represented by Republican John Campbell.


North Newport Beach from the air

Before its dissolution Air California was headquartered in Newport Beach.

The city is also the home of the Pacific Investment Management Company, which runs the world's largest bond fund.

Several semiconductor companies, including Jazz Semiconductor, have their operations in Newport Beach.


Balboa beach one of the popular beaches of Newport.

Points of interest


Attractions include beaches on the Balboa Peninsula (featuring body-boarding hot-spot The Wedge), Corona del Mar State Beach and Crystal Cove State Park, to the south.

The Catalina Flyer, a giant 500 passenger catamaran, provides daily transportation from the Balboa Peninsula in Newport Beach to Avalon, California located on Santa Catalina Island. The historic Balboa Pavilion, established in 1906, is Newport Beach's most famous landmark.

The Orange County Museum of Art is a museum that exhibits modern and contemporary art, with emphasis on the work of California artists.[citation needed].

Balboa Island is an artificial island in Newport Harbor that was dredged and filled right before World War I. The Balboa Fun Zone is home to the Newport Harbor Nautical Museum.

The Pelican Hill area has two golf courses, both of which were recently reopened after extensive remodeling and the construction of a new hotel and clubhouse.

Popular culture

The city has figured into several television shows and movies.

Notable natives and/or residents

Balboa Street
Orange Coast College sailing school

External links



City of Costa Mesa, California
—  City  —

Location of Costa Mesa within Orange County, California
Country United States United States
State California California
County Orange
 - Type Council-Manager
 - City Council Mayor Allan Mansoor
Wendy Leece
Eric Bever
Katrina Foley
Gary Monahan
City Manager

Allan Roeder
City Treasurer / Finance Director

Marc Puckett, CCMT
 - Total 40.6 km2 (15.7 sq mi)
 - Land 40.5 km2 (15.61 sq mi)
 - Water 0.2 km2 (0.1 sq mi)
Elevation 30 m (98 ft)
Population (January 1, 2009)
 - Total 116,479
 - Density 2,876/km2 (7,448.8/sq mi)
Time zone PST (UTC-8)
 - Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP codes 92626-92628
Area code(s) 714/949
FIPS code 06-16532
GNIS feature ID 1652692

Costa Mesa is a suburban city in Orange County, California, United States. The population was 116,479 as of January 1, 2009 . Since its incorporation in 1953, the city has grown from a semi-rural farming community of 16,840 to a suburban city with an economy based on retail, commerce and light manufacturing.


Members of the Gabrieleño/Tongva and Juaneño/Luiseño nations long inhabited the area. After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolà, a Spanish expedition led by Father Junípero Serra named the area Vallejo de Santa Ana (Valley of Saint Anne). On November 1, 1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano became the area's first permanent European settlement in Alta California, New Spain.

In 1801, the Spanish Empire granted 62,500 acres (253 km2) to Jose Antonio Yorba, which he named Rancho San Antonio. Yorba's great rancho included the lands where the cities of Olive, Orange, Villa Park, Santa Ana, Tustin, Costa Mesa and Newport Beach stand today.

After the Mexican-American war, California became part of the United States and American settlers arrived in this area and formed the town of Fairview in the 1880s near the modern intersection of Harbor Boulevard and Adams Avenue. An 1889 flood wiped out the railroad serving the community, however, and it shriveled.

To the south, meanwhile, the community of Harper had arisen on a siding of the Santa Ana and Newport Railroad, named after a local rancher. This town prospered on its agricultural goods. On May 11, 1920, Harper changed its name to Costa Mesa, which literally means "coastal table" in Spanish. This is a reference to the city's geography as being a plateau by the coast.

Costa Mesa surged in population during and after World War II, as many thousands trained at Santa Ana Army Air Base and returned after the war with their families. Within three decades of incorporation, the city's population had nearly quintupled.

Commerce and culture

Costa Mesa's local economy relies heavily on retail and services. The single largest center of commercial activity is South Coast Plaza, a shopping center noted for its architecture and size. The volume of sales generated by South Coast Plaza, on the strength of 322 stores, places it among the highest volume regional shopping centers in the nation. It generates more than one billion dollars per year. Some manufacturing activity also takes place in the city, mostly in the industrial, southwestern quarter, which is home to a number of electronics, pharmaceuticals and plastics firms.

The commercial district surrounding South Coast Plaza, which contains parts of northern Costa Mesa and southern Santa Ana, is sometimes called South Coast Metro.

The Orange County Performing Arts Center and South Coast Repertory Theater are based in the city. A local newspaper, the Daily Pilot, is owned, operated, and printed by the Los Angeles Times.

The commercial district within the triangle that is formed by Highways 405, 55 & 73 is sometimes called SoBeCa, which stands for "South On Bristol, Entertainment, Culture & Arts".

Costa Mesa offers 26 parks, a municipal golf course, 26 public schools and 2 libraries. It is also home to the Orange County Fairgrounds, which hosts one of the largest fairs in California, the Orange County Fair, each July. The Fair receives more than one million visitors each year. Adjacent to the Fairgrounds is the Pacific Amphitheater, which has hosted acts such as Madonna, Bill Cosby, Jessica Simpson, Steppenwolf, Kelly Clarkson and many more.



A general law city, Costa Mesa has a council-manager form of government. Voters elect a five-member City Council, all at-large seats, who in turn select a mayor who acts as its chairperson and head of the government. Day to day, the city is run by a professional city manager and staff of approximately 600 full-time employees.

Management of the city and coordination of city services are provided by:

Office Officeholder
City Manager Allan L. Roeder
Assistant City Manager Thomas R. Hatch
City Attorney Kimberly Hall Barlow
Director of Administrative Services Steven N. Mandoki
Director of Development Services Donald D. Lamm
Director of Finance Vacant
Director of Public Works Peter Naghavi
Fire Chief Michael F. Morgan
Police Chief Christopher Shawkey

The 9.5 acre (38,000 m²) Costa Mesa Civic Center is located at 77 Fair Drive. City Hall is a five-story building where the primary administrative functions of the City are conducted. Also contained in the Civic Center complex are Council Chambers, the Police facility, Communications building and Fire Station No. 5.

Emergency services

Fire protection is provided by the Costa Mesa Fire Department. Law enforcement is the responsibility of the Costa Mesa Police Department. Emergency Medical Services are provided by the Costa Mesa Fire Department and Care Ambulance Service.

State and federal

In the state legislature Costa Mesa is located in the 35th Senate District, represented by Republican Tom Harman, and in the 68th Assembly District, represented by Republican Van Tran. Federally, Costa Mesa is located in California's 46th congressional district, which has a Cook PVI of R +6 and is represented by Republican Dana Rohrabacher.


Costa Mesa is served by several bus lines of the Orange County Transportation Authority (OCTA), but most transportation is by automobile. Two freeways terminate here, State Route 73 and State Route 55 (also known as the Costa Mesa Freeway). The San Diego Freeway, Interstate 405, also runs through the city.


Costa Mesa is located at (33.664969, -117.912289). Located 37 miles (60 km) southeast of Los Angeles, 88 miles (142 km) north of San Diego and 425 miles (684 km) south of San Francisco, Costa Mesa encompasses a total of 16 square miles (41 km2) with its southernmost border only 1-mile (1.6 km) from the Pacific Ocean. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 40.6 km² (15.7 mi²). 40.5 km² (15.6 mi²) of it is land and 0.2 km² (0.1 mi²) of it (0.38%) is water.


Costa Mesa has a Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csb).

Weather data for Costa Mesa
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 64
Average low °F (°C) 48
Precipitation inches (mm) 2.60
Source: Weather Channel 2009-03-29


As of the census of 2000, there were 108,724 people, 39,206 households, and 22,778 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,685.8/km² (6,956.3/mi²). There were 40,406 housing units at an average density of 998.1/km² (2,585.2/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 69.48% White, 1.40% Black or African American, 0.78% Native American, 6.90% Asian, 0.60% Pacific Islander, 16.57% from other races, and 4.27% from two or more races. 31.75% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 39,206 households out of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.8% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.9% were non-families. 28.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.34.

In the city the population was spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 39.0% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, and 8.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 105.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $50,732, and the median income for a family was $55,456. Males had a median income of $38,670 versus $32,365 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,342. About 8.2% of families and 12.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.0% of those under age 18 and 6.2% of those age 65 or over.


Institutions of higher learning located in Costa Mesa include Orange Coast College, Vanguard University (affiliated with the Assemblies of God), Whittier Law School (a satellite of Whittier College) and National University (a private university based in La Jolla, California).

Costa Mesa has two high schools, Costa Mesa High School and Estancia High School. Costa Mesa has two public middle schools; Tewinkle Middle School, which was named after Costa Mesa's first mayor, and Costa Mesa Middle School which shares the same campus as Costa Mesa High School. Costa Mesa also has two alternative high schools that share the same campus, Back Bay High School and Monte Vista High School. Costa Mesa High School's sports programs have been very successful, and Costa Mesa graduates include 2008 Olympic high jumper Sharon Day.

Notable natives and residents

External links



City of Seal Beach, California
—  City  —

Location of Seal Beach within Orange County, California.
Country United States
State California
County Orange
 - Mayor Gordon Shanks
 - Total 13.2 sq mi (34.2 km2)
 - Land 11.5 sq mi (29.8 km2)
 - Water 1.7 sq mi (4.5 km2)
Elevation 13 ft (4 m)
Population (2000)
 - Total 24,157
 - Density 2,098.7/sq mi (810.3/km2)
Time zone PST (UTC-8)
 - Summer (DST) PDT (UTC-7)
ZIP code 90740
Area code(s) 562
FIPS code 06-70686
GNIS feature ID 1661416

Seal Beach is a city in Orange County, California. As of 2000, its population was 24,157. The city was incorporated on October 25, 1915.

Seal Beach is located in the westernmost corner of Orange County. To the northwest, just across the border with Los Angeles County, lies the city of Long Beach and the adjacent San Pedro Bay. To the southeast are Huntington Harbour, a neighborhood of Huntington Beach, and the unincorporated community of Sunset Beach. To the east lie the city of Westminster and the neighborhood of West Garden Grove, part of the city of Garden Grove. To the north lie the unincorporated community of Rossmoor and the city of Los Alamitos.


Early on, the area that is now Seal Beach was known as "Anaheim Landing", as the boat landing and seaside recreation area named after the nearby town of Anaheim.

By the 20th century, it was known as Bay City, but there was already a Bay City located in Northern California. When the time came to incorporate on 25 October 1915, the town was named Seal Beach. The town became a popular recreation destination in the area, and featured a beach-side amusement park long before Disneyland was founded inland.

The United States Navy's Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach was originally constructed during World War II for loading, unloading, and storing of ammunition for the Pacific Fleet, and especially those US Navy warships home-ported in Long Beach and San Diego, California. With closure of the Concord Naval Weapons Station in Northern California, it has become the primary source of munitions for a majority of the U.S. Pacific Fleet.


Seal Beach is located at (33.759283, -118.082396).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 34.2 km² (13.2 mi²). 29.8 km² (11.5 mi²) of it is land and 4.5 km² (1.7 mi²) of it (13.01%) is water.


Seal Beach has a Mediterranean climate

Weather data for Seal Beach
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 68
Average low °F (°C) 46
Precipitation inches (mm) 2.95
Source: Weather Channel 2009-03-29


Seal Beach encompasses the Leisure World retirement gated community with roughly 9,000 residents. This was the first major planned retirement community of its type in the U.S. The small gated community of Surfside Colony southwest of the Weapons Station is also part of Seal Beach.

The main body of Seal Beach consists of many neighborhoods.

-Old Town is the area on the ocean side of California State Route 1(PCH).

-"The Hill" is the neighborhood on the north side of PCH thats borders end at Gum Grove Park.

-College Park West is a small neighborhood bordering Long Beach. Its streets are named after colleges.

-College Park East is another small neighborhood bordering Garden Grove. Its streets are named after plants.


Seal Beach amusement park, 1920.

As of the census of 2000, there were 24,157 people, 13,048 households, and 5,884 families residing in the city. The population density was 810.3/km² (2,099.5/mi²). There were 14,267 housing units at an average density of 478.6/km² (1,240.0/mi²). The racial makeup of the city was 88.91% White, 1.44% African American, 0.30% Native American, 5.74% Asian, 0.18% Pacific Islander, 1.28% from other races, and 2.16% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.43% of the population.

There were 13,048 households, out of which 13.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.2% were married couples living together, 5.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 54.9% were non-families. 48.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 34.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.83 and the average family size was 2.65.

In the city the population was spread out with 13.3% under the age of 18, 4.0% from 18 to 24, 21.5% from 25 to 44, 23.7% from 45 to 64, and 37.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 54 years. For every 100 females there were 78.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.4 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $42,079, and the median income for a family was $72,071. Males had a median income of $61,654 versus $41,615 for females. The per capita income for the city was $34,589. About 3.2% of families and 5.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.2% of those under age 18 and 5.3% of those age 65 or over.


The major employer in Seal Beach is the Boeing Company, employing roughly 2,000 people. Their facility was originally built to manufacture the second stage of the Saturn V rocket for NASA's Apollo manned space flight missions to the Moon and for the Skylab program. Boeing Homeland Security & Services (airport security, etc.) is based in Seal Beach and Boeing Space & Intelligence Systems (satellite systems and classified programs) is headquartered in Seal Beach. Boeing is the world's largest satellite manufacturer.

Arts and culture

"Anaheim Landing" on an 1875 map.
Anaheim Landing (now Seal Beach), 1891.

Annual cultural events

The Lions Club Pancake Breakfast in April, and their Fish Fry (started in 1943) in July are two of the biggest events in Seal Beach. There has been a Rough Water Swim the same weekend as the Fish Fry since the 1960s. The Seal Beach Chamber of Commerce sponsors many events, including: a Classic Car Show in April, a Summer Concert series in July & August, the Christmas Parade in December along with Santa & the Reindeer. Also in the fall is the Kite Festival in September.

Other points of interest

On Electric Avenue where the railroad tracks used to run, there is the Red Car Museum [1] which features a restored Pacific Electric Railway Red Car. The Red Car trolley tracks once passed through Seal Beach going south to the Balboa Peninsula in Newport Beach. Going north into Long Beach you could then take the Red Cars through much of Los Angeles County.

Seal Beach is also home to the Bay Theatre, a popular venue for independent film and revival screenings.

The Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge is located on part of the Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach. Much of the refuge's 911 acres (3.69 km2) is the remnant of the saltwater marsh in the Anaheim Bay estuary (the rest of the marsh became the bayside community of Huntington Harbour, which is part of Huntington Beach). Three endangered species, the light-footed Clapper Rail, the California Least Tern, and the Belding's Savannah Sparrow, can be found nesting in the refuge. With the loss and degradation of coastal wetlands in California, the remaining habitat, including the Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve in Huntington Beach and Upper Newport Bay in Newport Beach, has become much more important for migrating and wintering shorebirds, waterfowl, and seabirds. Although the refuge is a great place for birdwatching, because it is part of the weapons station, access is limited and usually restricted to once-a-month tours.


Seal Beach on a crowded summer afternoon

The second longest wooden pier in California (the longest is in Oceanside) is located in Seal Beach and is used for fishing and sightseeing. There is also a restaurant (Ruby's) at the end of the pier. The pier has periodically suffered severe damage due to storms and other mishaps, requiring extensive reconstruction. A plaque at the pier's entrance memorializes Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works, 1938, Project No. Calif. 1723-F, a rebuilding necessitated by storms in 1935. Another plaque honors the individuals, businesses, and groups who helped rebuild the pier after a storm on March 2, 1983, tore away several sections. Most prominent was a "Save the Pier" group formed in response to an initial vote by the City Council not to repair the pier. The ensuing outcry of dismay among residents caused the City Council to reverse its stance while claiming the city lacked the necessary funds. Residents mobilized and eventually raised $2.3 million from private and public donors to rebuild the pier.

Surfing locations in Seal Beach include the Seal Beach pier and "Stingray Bay" (or Ray Bay—the surfer's nickname for the mouth of the San Gabriel River—the stingrays are attracted by the heated water from several upstream powerplants). Classic longboard builders in the area include Harbour Surfboards established in 1959 in Seal Beach and Bruce Jones Surfboards in Sunset Beach. The classic surf trunks of Kanvas by Katin in nearby Sunset Beach are world famous.

The USA Water Polo National Aquatic Center, where the men's and women's US Olympic water polo teams train, is located on the US Military Joint Forces Training Base in Los Alamitos, adjacent to Seal Beach. The facility is also used for major water polo tournaments, swim classes, and swim teams.

A marina for recreational craft operated by the City of Long Beach is adjacent to Seal Beach.


Seal Beach, City Hall.(National Registered Historic Place)

The city is administered under a council-manager form of government, and is governed by a five-member city council serving four-year alternating terms.

In the state legislature Seal Beach is located in the 35th Senate District, represented by Republican Tom Harman, and in the 67th Assembly District, represented by Republican Jim Silva. Federally, Seal Beach is located in California's 46th congressional district, which has a Cook PVI of R +6 and is represented by Republican Dana Rohrabacher.


Seal Beach is currently under the Los Alamitos School District. Younger students (K-5) go to McGaugh Elementary School or Hopkinson Elementary School. Students in grades 6-8 attend either Oak Middle School or McAuliffe Middle School. High school students go to Los Alamitos High School. Until 2000, the Orange County High School of the Arts was part of Los Alamitos High School. In 2000, the school district suffered a major blow when the community lost the Orange County High School of the Arts to Santa Ana, where it is now located.


In the 2001 film American Pie 2, the beach town the gang drives through is Main Street in Seal Beach. The same street was used for the 1967 motorcycle-gang film The Born Losers which introduced the Billy Jack character.

The short-lived afternoon television soap opera, "Sunset Beach", was named after the unincorporated community of Sunset Beach just south of Seal Beach. All the still house shots were of houses in Seal Beach. They also filmed almost all of the beach scenes in Seal Beach.

Moses parted the "Red Sea" for Cecil B. DeMille's 1923 version of The Ten Commandments on the flat seashore of Seal Beach. (Cecil B. DeMille's 1956 epic color version with Charlton Heston as Moses has no connection to Seal Beach.)

The TV show "Greek" filmed its 2nd season finale at this beach, renaming it "Myrtle Beach".

The episode "Summer Song" from the popular television series "The Wonder Years" used Seal Beach and the Seal Beach Pier for the scenes on the sand and under the pier.

Local news and events coverage is provided by the weekly Seal Beach Sun newspaper.

Famous natives and residents

External links



Orange County is a county in Southern California, United States. Its county seat is Santa Ana. According to the 2000 Census, its population was 2,846,289, making it the second most populous county in the state of California, and the fifth most populous in the United States. The state of California estimates its population as of 2007 to be 3,098,121 people, dropping its rank to third, behind San Diego County. Thirty-four incorporated cities are located in Orange County; the newest is Aliso Viejo.

Unlike many other large centers of population in the United States, Orange County uses its county name as its source of identification whereas other places in the country are identified by the large city that is closest to them. This is because there is no defined center to Orange County like there is in other areas which have one distinct large city. Five Orange County cities have populations exceeding 170,000 while no cities in the county have populations surpassing 360,000. Seven of these cities are among the 200 largest cities in the United States.

Orange County is also famous as a tourist destination, as the county is home to such attractions as Disneyland and Knott's Berry Farm, as well as sandy beaches for swimming and surfing, yacht harbors for sailing and pleasure boating, and extensive area devoted to parks and open space for golf, tennis, hiking, kayaking, cycling, skateboarding, and other outdoor recreation. It is at the center of Southern California's Tech Coast, with Irvine being the primary business hub.

The average price of a home in Orange County is $541,000. Orange County is the home of a vast number of major industries and service organizations. As an integral part of the second largest market in America, this highly diversified region has become a Mecca for talented individuals in virtually every field imaginable. Indeed the colorful pageant of human history continues to unfold here; for perhaps in no other place on earth is there an environment more conducive to innovative thinking, creativity and growth than this exciting, sun bathed valley stretching between the mountains and the sea in Orange County.

Orange County was Created March 11 1889, from part of Los Angeles County, and, according to tradition, so named because of the flourishing orange culture. Orange, however, was and is a commonplace name in the United States, used originally in honor of the Prince of Orange, son-in-law of King George II of England.

Incorporated: March 11, 1889
Legislative Districts:
* Congressional: 38th-40th, 42nd & 43
* California Senate: 31st-33rd, 35th & 37
* California Assembly: 58th, 64th, 67th, 69th, 72nd & 74

County Seat: Santa Ana
County Information:
Robert E. Thomas Hall of Administration
10 Civic Center Plaza, 3rd Floor, Santa Ana 92701
Telephone: (714)834-2345 Fax: (714)834-3098
County Government Website:


City of Aliso Viejo, 92653, 92656, 92698
City of Anaheim, 92801, 92802, 92803, 92804, 92805, 92806, 92807, 92808, 92809, 92812, 92814, 92815, 92816, 92817, 92825, 92850, 92899
City of Brea, 92821, 92822, 92823
City of Buena Park, 90620, 90621, 90622, 90623, 90624
City of Costa Mesa, 92626, 92627, 92628
City of Cypress, 90630
City of Dana Point, 92624, 92629
City of Fountain Valley, 92708, 92728
City of Fullerton, 92831, 92832, 92833, 92834, 92835, 92836, 92837, 92838
City of Garden Grove, 92840, 92841, 92842, 92843, 92844, 92845, 92846
City of Huntington Beach, 92605, 92615, 92646, 92647, 92648, 92649
City of Irvine, 92602, 92603, 92604, 92606, 92612, 92614, 92616, 92618, 92619, 92620, 92623, 92650, 92697, 92709, 92710
City of La Habra, 90631, 90632, 90633
City of La Palma, 90623
City of Laguna Beach, 92607, 92637, 92651, 92652, 92653, 92654, 92656, 92677, 92698
City of Laguna Hills, 92637, 92653, 92654, 92656
City of Laguna Niguel
, 92607, 92677
City of Laguna Woods, 92653, 92654
City of Lake Forest, 92609, 92630, 92610
City of Los Alamitos, 90720, 90721
City of Mission Viejo, 92675, 92690, 92691, 92692, 92694
City of Newport Beach, 92657, 92658, 92659, 92660, 92661, 92662, 92663
City of Orange, 92856, 92857, 92859, 92861, 92862, 92863, 92864, 92865, 92866, 92867, 92868, 92869
City of Placentia, 92870, 92871
City of Rancho Santa Margarita, 92688, 92679
City of San Clemente, 92672, 92673, 92674
City of San Juan Capistrano, 92675, 92690, 92691, 92692, 92693, 92694
City of Santa Ana, 92701, 92702, 92703, 92704, 92705, 92706, 92707, 92708, 92711, 92712, 92725, 92728, 92735, 92799
City of Seal Beach, 90740
City of Stanton, 90680
City of Tustin, 92780, 92781, 92782
City of Villa Park, 92861, 92867
City of Westminster, 92683, 92684, 92685
City of Yorba Linda, 92885, 92886, 92887

Noteworthy communities Some of the communities that exist within city limits are listed below: * Anaheim Hills, Anaheim * Balboa Island, Newport Beach * Corona del Mar, Newport Beach * Crystal Cove / Pelican Hill, Newport Beach * Capistrano Beach, Dana Point * El Modena, Orange * French Park, Santa Ana * Floral Park, Santa Ana * Foothill Ranch, Lake Forest * Monarch Beach, Dana Point * Nellie Gail, Laguna Hills * Northwood, Irvine * Woodbridge, Irvine * Newport Coast, Newport Beach * Olive, Orange * Portola Hills, Lake Forest * San Joaquin Hills, Laguna Niguel * San Joaquin Hills, Newport Beach * Santa Ana Heights, Newport Beach * Tustin Ranch, Tustin * Talega, San Clemente * West Garden Grove, Garden Grove * Yorba Hills, Yorba Linda * Mesa Verde, Costa Mesa

Unincorporated communities These communities are outside of the city limits in unincorporated county territory: * Coto de Caza * El Modena * Ladera Ranch * Las Flores * Midway City * Orange Park Acres * Rossmoor * Silverado Canyon * Sunset Beach * Surfside * Trabuco Canyon * Tustin Foothills

Adjacent counties to Orange County Are: * Los Angeles County, California - north, west * San Bernardino County, California - northeast * Riverside County, California - east * San Diego County, California - southeast

Huntington Beach, Fountain Valley, Newport Beach, Seal Beach, Costa Mesa, Orange County, 92605, 92615, 92646, 92647, 92648, 92649
Microbrews, Gourmet, Champagne, Cabernet, Chardonnay, Bordeaux, Scotch, Vodka, Tequila, Burgundy, Merlot, Scotch, Vodka, Gin, Cognac, Port, Chianti, French Wine, California Wine, Gourmet Food Superstore, Pinot, Ale, Lager, Cigars, Cognac, Glassware, Rum, Brandy, Liquor, spirits liquor, chocolate liquor, malt liquor, beer liquor,
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in Huntington Beach, Orange County's Best pledges to provide you consistently delicious Food, Soda, Beer, Wine, Liquor, Non-Alcoholic Drinks, Lotto, Chips, Donuts, Milk, Sandwitches, Cookies, Brownies, Cerial, Groceries, Eggs, Fresh Fruit, Dried Fruit, Gatorade, Chocolates, Nuts, Candy, Ice Creams, Cup Cakes, Bottled Water, Vitamin Water, Beef Jerky, Health Bars, Hot Dogs, Bread, Vitamins, Car Accessories, Juices, Pepsi, Coke, A&W, 7-Up, Root Beer, Dr. Pepper, Sprite, Sierra Mist, Monster Drinks, Bandaids, Asparin, First Aid Kits, Flashlights, Matches, Cigarettes, Car Accessories, and many more items with fair prices in a warm and friendly atmosphere.

Aliso Viejo 92656, 92698,
Anaheim 92801, 92802, 92803, 92804, 92805, 92806, 92807, 92808, 92809, 92812, 92814, 92815, 92816, 92817, 92825, 92850, 92899,
Atwood, 92811,
Brea, 92821, 92822,92823,
Buena Park, 90620 ,90621,90622, 90624, Capistrano Beach, 92624,
Corona del Mar, 92625,
Costa Mesa, 92626, 92627, 92628,
Cypress, 90630,
Dana Point, 92629,
East Irvine, 92650,
El Toro, 92609,
Foothill Ranch, 92610,
Fountain Valley, 92708, 92728,
Fullerton, 92831, 92832, 92833, 92834, 92835, 92836, 92837, 92838,
Garden Grove, 92840, 92841, 92842, 92843 ,92844, 92845, 92846,
Huntington Beach , 92605, 92615, 92646, 92647, 92648, 92649,
Irvine, 92602, 92603, 92604, 92606, 92612, 92614, 92616, 92617, 92618, 92619, 92620, 92623, 92697,
La Habra, 90631, 90632, 90633,
La Palma, 90623,
Ladera Ranch, 92694,
Laguna Beach , 92651, 92652,
Laguna Hills ,92653, 92654,92607,92677,
Laguna Woods, 92637,
Lake Forest, 92630,
Los Alamitos, 90720, 90721,
Midway City, 92655,
Mission Viejo, 92690, 92691, 92692,
Newport Beach , 92658, 92659, 92660, 92661, 92662, 92663, 92657,
Orange, 92856, 92857, 92859, 92862, 92863, 92864, 92865, 92866, 92867, 92868, 92869, Placentia, 92870, 92871,
Rancho Santa Margarita 92688,
San Clemente, 92672, 92673, 92674,
San Juan Capistrano, 92675, 92693,
Santa Ana , 92701, 92702, 92703, 92704, 92705 ,92706, 92707, 92711, 92712, 92725.92735, 92799,
Seal Beach , 90740,
Silverado 92676,
Stanton, 90680,
Sunset Beach 90742,
Surfside 90743,
Trabuco Canyon, 92678, 92679,
Tustin ,92780, 92781,92782,
Villa Park, 92861,
Westminster, 92683, 92684, 92685,
Yorba Linda, 92885, 92886, 92887

Huntington Beach, Fountain Valley, Newport Beach, Seal Beach, Costa Mesa, Orange County, 92605, 92615, 92646, 92647, 92648, 92649
Microbrews, Gourmet, Champagne, Cabernet, Chardonnay, Bordeaux, Scotch, Vodka, Tequila, Burgundy, Merlot, Scotch, Vodka, Gin, Cognac, Port, Chianti, French Wine, California Wine, Gourmet Food Superstore, Pinot, Ale, Lager, Cigars, Cognac, Glassware, Rum, Brandy, Liquor, spirits liquor, chocolate liquor, malt liquor, beer liquor,
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Huntington Beach, Fountain Valley, Newport Beach, Seal Beach, Costa Mesa, Orange County